Winston Chan

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Être Chinois au Québec

Publication: 12/02/2013 08:19

L'année du Serpent vient de débuter pour plus d'un milliard de Chinois à travers le monde. Historiquement, au Québec comme dans d'autres provinces canadiennes, la communauté chinoise a subi de la discrimination. Cependant, une nouvelle ère a été entamée depuis peu au Québec, les Chinois laissant derrière eux l'amertume liée à plusieurs années d'exclusion.

Une histoire d'exclusion

Rappelons brièvement qu'à partir de 1885, l'Acte sur l'immigration chinoise a exigé des nouveaux arrivants chinois le paiement d'une taxe d'entrée. Cette taxe était de 100 $ en 1900 et 500 $ en 1903. Au tournant du 20e siècle, une maison coûtait 250 $. Les Chinois se retrouvaient donc à assumer l'équivalent de deux hypothèques, simplement pour pouvoir immigrer au Canada...

Puis, en 1923, ce fut au tour de la Loi de l'immigration chinoise d'être adoptée. Cette loi d'exclusion interdisait à la quasi-totalité des Chinois d'immigrer au Canada. Parallèlement, au Québec, les enfants chinois n'ont pu fréquenter l'école française pendant de nombreuses décennies du fait qu'ils n'étaient pas catholiques.

En 2013, quelles leçons la nouvelle génération sino-québécoise tire-t-elle du passé?

Tirer des leçons du passé

Aujourd'hui, les jeunes Sino-Québécois sont nombreux à vivre en français. Plusieurs parlent couramment deux, trois, voire quatre langues. Leur défi: bâtir des ponts entre la communauté chinoise et le reste de la société québécoise. Et alors que certains d'entre eux sont sensibilisés à l'histoire de leur communauté au Québec, d'autres le sont beaucoup moins.

En tant que jeunes Québécois d'origine chinoise, il nous appartient de prendre toute la place qui nous revient en nous engageant socialement, économiquement et politiquement. Par exemple, nous pouvons apporter une contribution significative à la société en faisant du bénévolat pour des causes de bienfaisance, en participant à des conseils d'administration et en nous impliquant dans des partis politiques.

De plus, grâce à notre connaissance de la langue chinoise, nous pouvons contribuer à soutenir des entreprises québécoises qui souhaitent percer le marché chinois. Notre identité, notre connaissance de la culture et des valeurs chinoises, notre capacité à passer d'une culture à l'autre sont de précieux atouts pour la société québécoise. Une plus grande intégration de la communauté chinoise par une implication sociale accrue de sa nouvelle génération ne peut qu'être bénéfique pour le Québec.

Des images du Nouvel an chinois, compilées par nos collègues du HuffPost américain
Le billet de Winston Chan se poursuit après la galerie

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  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees light candles at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    A Chinese man lights his cigarette as he prepare to light up the firecrackers on his hand during the Chinese New Year in Beijing Sunday, Feb. 10, 2013. Chinese will celebrate the Lunar New Year on Feb. 10 this year which marks the Year of Snake. Chinese authorities have asked the public to set off fewer fireworks in Beijing to reduce pollution in the capital. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees pray at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees pray at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    A man takes photos of fire works at a neighborhood to celebrate on the Chinese Lunar New Year's Day on Saturday, Feb. 10, 2013 in Shanghai, China. Chinese celebrate the Lunar New Year, also known as the Spring Festival in China. According to the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac, the year 2013 marks the year of the snake. (AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Chinese women cover their ears as fireworks light up a residential area during the Eve of Chinese New Year in Beijing Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. Chinese will celebrate the Lunar New Year on Feb. 10 this year which marks the Year of Snake. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Visitors at the Lungshan Temple hold their ears as fireworks explode on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    People look at the fire works at a neighborhood to celebrate on the Chinese Lunar New Year's Day on Saturday, Feb. 10, 2013 in Shanghai, China. Chinese celebrate the Lunar New Year, also known as the Spring Festival in China. According to the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac, the year 2013 marks the year of the snake. (AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    A Chinese man uses his cigarette lights up the firecrackers during the Chinese New Year in Beijing Sunday, Feb. 10, 2013. Chinese will celebrate the Lunar New Year on Feb. 10 this year which marks the Year of Snake. Chinese authorities have asked the public to set off fewer fireworks in Beijing to reduce pollution in the capital. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees pray at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Chinese elders apply eyelids to a newly made lotus dragon during a blessing on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake in the streets of China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. T he Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Firecrackers explode as dragon dancers perform in front of Chinese business establishment on the eve of Chinese New Year celebration Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. This year marks the Year of the Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees burn incense at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers take part in a dragon dance in the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers take part in a dragon dance in the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers take part in a dragon dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees pray at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Chinese elders apply eyelids to a newly made lotus dragon during a blessing on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake in the streets of China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. T he Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers perform a lion dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    An assistant shop clerk displays newly unveiled gold snake for sale ahead of the upcoming Chinese lunar new year, the year of the Snake, at a jewelry shop in Hong Kong Friday, Jan. 18, 2013. China is one of the world's biggest gold markets as it is a popular investment and hedge against inflation. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers take part in a dragon dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Thean Hock Keong temple, also known as Snake Temple, in Klang, is seen outside Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. The Chinese Lunar New Year begins on Feb. 10 and marks the start of the Year of Snake, according to the Chinese zodiac. (AP Photo/Lai Seng Sin)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers perform a lion dance (R) and a dragon dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers perform a lion dance (front) and a dragon dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Firecrackers explode as dragon dancers perform in front of paying Chinese business establishment on the eve of Chinese New Year celebrations Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo, Philippines. This year marks the Year of the Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Firecrackers explode as dragon dancers perform in front of Chinese business establishments on the eve of Chinese New Year celebration Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. This year marks the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Dragon dancers watch a performance by other groups in front of Chinese business establishments on the eve of Chinese New Year celebration Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. This year marks the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    A woman shops around seasonal items ahead of Chinese New Year in Chinatown in Bangkok, Thailand, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. Chinese New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year to mark the year of the snake. (AP Photo/Sakchai Lalit)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    An ethnic Chinese Malaysian walks at Thean Hock Keong temple, also known as Snake Temple, in Klang, outside Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. The Chinese Lunar New Year begins on Feb. 10 and marks the start of the Year of Snake, according to the Chinese zodiac. (AP Photo/Lai Seng Sin)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Dragon dancers take a break after performing in front of Chinese business establishments on the eve of Chinese New Year celebration Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. This year marks the Year of the Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Snake sculptures curl around columns of Thean Hock Keong temple, also known as Snake Temple as an ethnic Chinese Malaysian walks in Klang, outside Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. The Chinese Lunar New Year begins on Feb. 10 and marks the start of the Year of Snake, according to the Chinese zodiac. (AP Photo/Lai Seng Sin)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Dragon dancers perform in front of Chinese business establishment on the eve of Chinese New Year celebration Saturday Feb. 9, 2013 at Manila's Chinatown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. This year marks the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Devotees pray at the Lungshan Temple on the eve of the Chinese lunar new year in Taipei, Taiwan, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. The Lunar New Year falls on Feb. 10 this year, marking the Year of Snake in the Chinese calendar. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    A store owner shows snake ornaments on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    In this photo taken on Wednesday, Jan. 9, 2013, Director of the Temple of White Snakes Lo Chin-shih holds a genetically modified, auspicious, white snake as he talks about its significance in the upcoming Chinese lunar new year of the snake according to the lunar zodiac calendar in Taoyuan county, in north western Taiwan. Lo said the new year of the snake would be a time of steady progress, in contrast to the more turbulent nature of the outgoing year of the dragon. The Chinese new year fall on Feb. 10. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    In this photo taken on Wednesday, Jan. 9, 2013, ahead of the Chinese lunar new year of the Snake, following the Chinese zodiac, a stuffed snake sits the altar at the Temple of White Snakes in Taoyuan county, in north western Taiwan. Director of the temple Lo Chin-shih said the new year of the snake would be a time of steady progress, in contrast to the more turbulent nature of the outgoing year of the dragon. The Chinese new year fall on Feb. 10. (AP Photo/Wally Santana)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Snake ornaments on sale on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Year of the Snake 2013

    Performers take part in a dragon dance on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year of the Snake, in China town in Manila on February 9, 2013. The Dragon Dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year to bring in good luck and prosperity as billions of Chinese world wide celebrate Lunar New Year of the Snake on February 10. AFP PHOTO / Jay DIRECTO (Photo credit should read JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

Le rôle du gouvernement

Par ailleurs, le gouvernement québécois doit aussi donner l'exemple en adoptant des mesures d'accueil visant une meilleure intégration économique et sociale. Il ne faut pas se le cacher : l'intégration des communautés culturelles dépend, en grande partie, d'une intégration socioéconomique réussie. Il faut conséquemment réitérer l'importance d'accorder plus de place à la diversité au sein de sa fonction publique. Le gouvernement doit aussi s'assurer qu'une politique de diversité culturelle est appliquée dans ses instances officielles, tout comme dans les sociétés d'État.

Les jeunes Chinois et la langue française

En ce qui a trait à la langue française, il ne suffit pas d'apprendre le français à l'école. Il faut aussi que la société valorise la langue de Molière et la rende attrayante. Bien sûr, l'école doit mettre en place des mesures pour bien encadrer son enseignement, mais pour qu'elle devienne une langue quotidienne, d'usage à la maison et dans les lieux publics, il faut aussi la faire aimer. À cet égard, il convient également de mieux former les futurs enseignants à la nouvelle réalité de l'immigration.

Alors que les débats linguistiques refont surface et que certains se demandent jusqu'où étendre la nouvelle loi 101 pour contrer l'anglicisation, n'y aurait-il pas lieu d'élargir le débat? En effet, la réelle question n'est-elle pas plutôt de se demander comment créer une meilleure cohésion sociale autour du français, notre langue commune?

C'est en s'intégrant dans les réseaux sociaux francophones que les allophones, y compris les Chinois, se mettent à vivre en français. La langue du travail devient alors primordiale. J'en conviens: les lois et règlements jouent un rôle fondamental pour accélérer l'intégration des diverses communautés, mais à mon avis, il faut plus.

Avec 55 000 nouveaux arrivants par année au Québec, le gouvernement doit investir massivement pour faciliter leur intégration à l'emploi, que ce soit par le biais de programmes d'accompagnement des entreprises pour franciser les milieux de travail, de stages de première expérience de travail en sol québécois ou encore, de soutien aux organismes communautaires d'aide aux immigrants. Cet investissement en vaut la peine, car c'est ce qui permettra au français de devenir la langue de notre cohésion sociale.

D'ailleurs, à bien y penser, le moment est particulièrement propice pour amorcer ces changements. En effet, la nouvelle année est placée sous le signe du serpent... signe apparemment favorable à la réflexion, l'apprentissage et le perfectionnement!

Ce texte reflète l'opinion personnelle de Winston Chan et n'engage aucunement le Conseil supérieur de la langue française.

 
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