David Bensoussan

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Réflexions sur la radicalisation terroriste

Publication: 22/06/2013 10:58

L'attentat du marathon de Boston tout comme les complots terroristes déjoués au Canada confrontent la société avec une nouvelle forme de terrorisme « décentralisé. » Comment expliquer cette radicalisation d'individus qui ne semble avoir été faite que par endoctrinement Internet ?

L'occidentalisation des pays du tiers monde a souvent dégénéré en conflit de valeurs : beaucoup ne voient l'Occident - et en premier lieu l'Amérique - que via les images hollywoodiennes lesquelles abondent en violence sinon en permissivité. Les valeurs occidentales de liberté et de respect de l'individu sont absentes des scénarios hollywoodiens. Ceci fait que d'une part, des populations adoptent - avec rage - la modernisation symbole de confort, de progrès et d'hygiène, tout en imitant les aspects négatifs de l'occidentalisation alors que d'autres en viennent à se révolter contre l'Occident assimilé à la décadence.

Mais il y a plus : dans leur course à la modernisation, des populations du tiers-monde se sont lancées dans une imitation forcée des Occidentaux. Cependant, une personne qui immigre en Occident peut être complètement déroutée par le manque d'interdits sociaux ou même par les femmes libérées. L'expérience de la liberté n'est pas toujours aisée. Elle peut donner le vertige. Il y a alors danger de repli sur soi, et notamment sur la religion. Les populations mécontentes ou frustrées, c.-à-d. les sans-emploi, les inadaptés, les prisonniers de droit commun, constituent des populations cibles pour l'embrigadement à des causes extrémistes. Qu'est-ce qui ferait qu'une personne ayant grandi au Canada et qui, culturellement, semble en tous points similaire à l'environnement social, se lance dans le terrorisme ? Il faut prendre en considération le stress psychologique de grande intensité qui accompagne ladite imitation auprès de la génération de transition. Ce stress laisse des séquelles profondes. Une personne du tiers monde qui n'arrive pas à assumer harmonieusement sa transition à la modernisation et à l'occidentalisation pourrait plonger corps et âme dans la religion qui, en puissance, englobe tout et a réponse à tout, incluant aux problèmes rencontrés au quotidien.

Le billet se poursuit après la galerie

LES PHOTOS CI-DESSOUS PEUVENT CHOQUER CERTAINES PERSONNES

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  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Police officers with their guns drawn hear the second explosion down the street. The first explosion knocked down a runner at the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Newspapers are on sale at a stand on Newbury Street on April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Security is especially tight in the city of Boston after two explosions went off near the finish of the Marathon, killing three people and injuring at least 141 others. Darren McCollester / Getty Images)

  • WARNING

    Some photos in this slideshow are graphic and may be disturbing to some viewers.

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    In this photo provided by The Daily Free Press and Kenshin Okubo, people react to an explosion at the 2013 Boston Marathon in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (Kenshin Okubo / The Daily Free Press / AP)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A woman kneels and prays at the scene of the first explosion on Boylston Street near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Victims are in shock and being treated at the scene of the first explosion that went off near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    People tend to an injured woman on the corner of Exeter and Newbury Streets after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (Bill Greene / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Bystanders help an injured woman at the scene of the first explosion on Boylston Street near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Medical workers runs an injured man past the finish line the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (Charles Krupa / AP)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Police and federal officials exit an apartment complex at 364 Ocean Avenue with a possible connection to the earlier expolsions during the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013 in Revere, Massachusetts. Three people are confirmed dead and at least 141 injured after two explosions went off near the finish line to the marathon. (Darren McCollester / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A victim of the first explosion is helped on the sidewalk of Boylston Street, after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Unclaimed finish line bags are viewed near the scene of a twin bombing at the Boston Marathon, on April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Three people are confirmed dead and at least 141 injured after the explosions went off near the finish line of the marathon yesterday. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence. (Spencer Platt / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A heavily armed Boston police officer (R) and a National Guard soldier (L) stands guard in front of the Taj Hotel April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the aftermath of two explosions that struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon April 15. A massive probe was underway Tuesday after two bombs struck the Boston Marathon, killing at least three and wounding more than 100. Monday's blasts near the finishing line raised fears of a terrorist attack more than a decade after nearly 3,000 people were killed in suicide airliner strikes on New York, Washington and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001. US President Barack Obama went on national television to warn against "jumping to conclusions" but a senior White House official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said such an attack was "clearly an act of terror." (Stan Honda / AFP / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A man comforts a victim on the sidewalk at the scene of the first explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Emergency personnel respond to the scene after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (David L. Ryan / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Boston Police look at blown out windows at the scene of the first explosion on Boylston Street near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: Police officers with their guns drawn hear the second explosion down the street. The first explosion knocked down a runner at the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (Photo by John Tlumacki/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Injured people lie on the sidewalk near a barrier at the scene of the first explosion that went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: Emergency personnel respond to the scene after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Passersby put pressure on a victim's leg to try to stop the bleeding at the scene of the first explosion near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    The marathon finish line bridge is seen on Boylston Street on April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. on April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Security is especially tight in the city of Boston after two explosions went off near the finish of the Marathon, killing three people and injuring at least 141 others. (Darren McCollester / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Blood from victims covers the sidewalk on Boylston Street, at the site of an explosion during the 2013 Boston Marathon in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. At the right foreground is a folding chair with the design of an American flag on the cover. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (Charles Krupa / AP)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A runner reacts near Kenmore Square after two bombs exploded during the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two people are confirmed dead and at least 23 injured after two explosions went off near the finish line to the marathon. (Alex Trautwig / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: (EDITOR'S NOTE: THIS IMAGE CONTAINS GRAPHIC CONTENT) A person who was injured in an explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon is taken away from the scene in a wheelchair. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A runner passes a police officer dressed in tactical gear, who blocks a road leading to the Boston Marathon route, the morning after explosions killed three and injured more than 140 in Boston, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. The bombs that blew up seconds apart at the finish line of one of the world's most storied races left the streets spattered with blood and glass, and gaping questions of who chose to attack at the Boston Marathon and why. (Charles Krupa / AP)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A person who was injured in an explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon is taken away from the scene in a wheelchair. (David L. Ryan / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Carlos Arredondo, who was at the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon when two explosives detonated, leaves the scene on April 15, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two people are confirmed dead and at least 28 injured after at least two explosions went off near the finish line to the marathon. (Darren McCollester / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: (EDITOR'S NOTE: THIS IMAGE CONTAINS GRAPHIC CONTENT) A person who was injured in an explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon is taken away from the scene on a stretcher. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Officials react as the first explosion goes off on Boylston Street near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    First responders tend to the wounded after two explosions occurred along the final stretch of the Boston Marathon on Boylston Street in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S., on Monday, April 15, 2013. (Kelvin Ma / Bloomberg / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Medical workers aid injured people at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: Two officials run away from the first explosion, right, on Boylston Street at the 177th Boston Marathon, April 15, 2013. (Photo by John Tlumacki/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A person who was injured in the first explosion is wheeled across the finish line of the Boston Marathon. (John Tlumacki / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Explosions At 117th Boston Marathon

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: (EDITOR'S NOTE: THIS IMAGE CONTAINS GRAPHIC CONTENT) A person who was injured in an explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon is taken away from the scene on a stretcher. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Neighbors hug outside the home of the Richard family in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Martin Richard, 8, was killed in Mondays bombing at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. (Michael Dwyer / AP)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    First responders rush to help injured people after two explosions occurred along the final stretch of the Boston Marathon on Boylston Street in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S., on Monday, April 15, 2013. Two powerful explosions rocked the finish line area of the Boston Marathon near Copley Square and police said many people were injured. (Kelvin Ma / Bloomberg / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Emergency workers aid injured people at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    There was smoke and panic in the street as emergency personnel responded to the scene after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (David L. Ryan / The Boston Globe / Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: (EDITOR'S NOTE: THIS IMAGE CONTAINS GRAPHIC CONTENT) A person who was injured in an explosion near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon is taken away from the scene on a stretcher. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A Boston police officer wheels in injured boy down Boylston Street as medical workers carry an injured runner following an explosion during the 2013 Boston Marathon in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria at the marathon's finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: Emergency personnel respond to the scene after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: A man lays on the ground after two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    BOSTON - APRIL 15: Two explosions went off near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. (Photo by David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Medical workers wheel the injured across the finish line during the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • An unidentified Boston Marathon runner, center, is reunited with loved ones near Copley Square following an explosion in Boston Monday, April 15, 2013. (AP Photo/Winslow Townson)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Medical responders run an injured man past the finish line the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria of the Boston Marathon finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    Medical workers aid injured people at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Boston Marathon Explosion

    A Boston police officer clears Boylston Street following an explosion at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. Two explosions shattered the euphoria at the finish line on Monday, sending authorities out on the course to carry off the injured while the stragglers were rerouted away from the smoking site of the blasts. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)


La religion est un phénomène qui embrasse l'intellect et l'affectif ; elle embrasse l'être dans son entier. Or, les religions monothéistes ont également un aspect « sombre », que ce soit des visions apocalyptiques ou encore des appels de guerre contre les mécréants. Lorsque la dimension religieuse dépasse la canalisation du jugement de bien et de mal au niveau individuel, il y a danger que des fondamentalistes religieux attachés plus à la lettre qu'à l'esprit des religions se lancent dans des aventures dans lesquelles la fin justifie les moyens. La religion peut être une arme redoutable si elle est utilisée à des fins d'embrigadement.

L'Internet, outil de communication universel, peut être également un outil de propagande et de manipulation. Qui plus est, il permet d'atteindre une vaste audience d'individus qui peuvent se lancer dans des activités terroristes sans qu'ils appartiennent à une structure de commande centralisée. Lorsque les messages de propagande haineuse des pays d'origine trouvent des appuis locaux, notamment auprès de certains marginaux, ils s'en trouvent légitimés aux yeux d'autres nouveaux venus. Cela retarde leur immersion dans la démocratie et la confrontation au besoin vital d'autocritique. L'absence d'autocritique porte de nombreux radicaux à chercher systématiquement la faute « ailleurs » (par exemple le colonialisme, l'intolérance, le racisme, etc.), quitte à se présenter en victimes dans un langage des plus culpabilisants. Il se crée alors une sorte de complaisance psychologique dans l'attitude de victime qui est cyniquement exploitée par les extrémistes dont le but est d'accroître l'emprise sur leurs adeptes en qui ils créent un sentiment de persécution amer.

Ceci dit, il est impossible de catégoriser systématiquement les populations susceptibles d'être embrigadées par les terroristes. Une peine d'amour, une famille brisée ou une faillite peuvent déclencher des comportements imprévisibles. Pour le reste, les mesures qu'il convient de prendre doivent inclure celles d'intégration à la société et celles de surveillance des marginaux et peut-être des « marginalisables. » Les premières portent fruit à moyen terme et à long terme, les secondes amoindrissent les risques à court terme.

 
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