PSYCHOLOGIE - "Ridiculement offensant." C'est ainsi que les familles des victimes du massacre d'Aurora (Colorado) ont qualifié l'invitation, par la chaîne de salles de cinéma Cinemark, à assister à la réouverture du multiplexe où s'est déroulé le drame en juillet 2012. Envoyée le 27 décembre, les familles estiment qu'en cette période de fêtes, Cinemark a rendu leur deuil "plus douloureux encore".

Manque de tact et mauvais timing, la réouverture du cinéma d'Aurora, où avaient été tuées personnes et 58 autres blessées en juillet dernier lors d'une projection du dernier "Batman", est évidemment l'exemple à ne pas suivre. Alors que les élèves de l'école de Sandy Hook ont fait leur rentrée jeudi 3 novembre, ces deux évènements posent la question de la réappropriation des lieux d'un drame. Comment réintégrer une école, une ville, un stade où s'est déroulée une catastrophe? En fonction de quels impératifs? Éléments de réponses à travers plusieurs exemples, de Columbine au drame du Heysel, en passant par les attentats du 11 septembre.

L'article se poursuit après le diaporama

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  • La police utilise une caméra pour regarder dans l'appartement du suspect. La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La police fouille l'appartement du suspect. La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • Shamecca Davis prend dans ses bras son fils Isaiah Bow, témoin de la scène. La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • Des témoins de la scène se soutiennent. La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

  • La tuerie qui a fait 12 morts et au moins 50 blessés, le 20 juin, à Aurora, au Colorado, pendant une représentation du film Batman.

Protéger les victimes

Deux dimensions distinctes et pas nécessairement liées sont à prendre en compte. Et en premier lieu, celle de la victime physique et/ou psychologique du drame. Comme nous l'explique le psychiatre et psychothérapeute Dan Véléa, dans le cadre d'un traumatisme tout est susceptible de faire replonger la victime dans l'évènement traumatique, que ce soit un bruit, un odeur, mais aussi évidemment la confrontation au lieu du traumatisme. Ce lieu, seule une thérapie sur la durée permettra à la victime de se le réapproprier, si toutefois celle-ci le souhaite ou le peut.

À cet égard, la rentrée des classes de l'école Sandy Hook fournit un bon exemple de cette attention. Si la principale de l'école Janet Robinson parle d'une" rentrée normale", l'évènement n'a évidemment rien de normal. À commencer par le lieu puisque les élèves étaient attendus à la Chalk Hill Middle School, une école désaffectée, à quelques kilomètres de Newtown dans la commune de Monroe.

Les images du drame de Newtown compilées par nos collègues du HuffPost américain
L'article se poursuit après le diaporama

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  • Connecticut State Police Release Sandy Hook Report

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows the Newtown Tehcnology Team ID of Adam Lanza in the bathroom at the suspect's house on Yogananda St. following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage at Sandy Hook Elementary School, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut . A report was released November 25, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III summarizing the Newtown school shooting that left 20 children and six women dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School. According to the report, a motive behind the shooting by gunman Adam Lanza is still unknown. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Connecticut State Police Release Sandy Hook Report

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows ammunition infrot of a gun safe in the south east bedroom (shooters room) at the suspect's house on Yogananda St. following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage at Sandy Hook Elementary School, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut . A report was released November 25, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III summarizing the Newtown school shooting that left 20 children and six women dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School. According to the report, a motive behind the shooting by gunman Adam Lanza is still unknown. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Connecticut State Police Release Sandy Hook Report

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows a Bushmaster rifle in Room 10 at Sandy Hook Elementary School following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut . A report was released November 25, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III summarizing the Newtown school shooting that left 20 children and six women dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School. According to the report, a motive behind the shooting by gunman Adam Lanza is still unknown. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Connecticut State Police Release Sandy Hook Report

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows firearms and ammunition found on or in close proximity to shooters body at Sandy Hook Elementary School following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut . A report was released November 25, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III summarizing the Newtown school shooting that left 20 children and six women dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School. According to the report, a motive behind the shooting by gunman Adam Lanza is still unknown. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Pro Gun Control Group Hold Memorial On Anniversary Of Sandy Hook School Shooting

    CHICAGO, IL - DECEMBER 14: Shundra Robinson holds a picture of her son Deno Wooldridge, 18, while speaking at a gathering of gun violence victims and gun control advocates at Cornell Square Park on the anniversary of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting December 14, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. Thirteen people, including a three-year-old boy, were wounded when gunmen opened fire on a crowd gathered at the basketball courts in Cornell Square Park in September. Twenty children and 6 adults were killed when a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook School. Wooldridge was shot and killed while standing on his grandmother's porch on October 18, 2010. More than 400 people have been murdered in Chicago so far this year, most by gunfire. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • Second Report On Sandy Hook Shootings Released

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows a rifle in the master bedroom in the suspect's house on Yogananda St. following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage at Sandy Hook Elementary School, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut. A second report was released December 27, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III gave more details of the the Newtown school shooting by Adam Lanza that left 20 children and six women educators dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School after killing his mother at their home. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Second Report On Sandy Hook Shootings Released

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows a Glock 20, 10mm found near the shooter in Room 10 at Sandy Hook Elementary School following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut. A second report was released December 27, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III gave more details of the the Newtown school shooting by Adam Lanza that left 20 children and six women educators dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School after killing his mother at their home. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Second Report On Sandy Hook Shootings Released

    NEWTOWN, CT - UNSPECIFED DATE: In this handout crime scene evidence photo provided by the Connecticut State Police, shows firearms and ammunition found on or in close proximity to shooters body at Sandy Hook Elementary School following the December 14, 2012 shooting rampage, taken on an unspecified date in Newtown, Connecticut. A second report was released December 27, 2013 by Connecticut State Attorney Stephen Sedensky III gave more details of the the Newtown school shooting by Adam Lanza that left 20 children and six women educators dead inside Sandy Hook Elementary School after killing his mother at their home. (Photo by Connecticut State Police via Getty Images)

  • Twenty-seven small U.S. flags adorn a large flag on a makeshift memorial on the side of Highway 84 near the Newtown, Conn., town line as residents mourn victims killed by gunman Adam Lanza, Monday, Dec. 17, 2012. On Friday, authorities say Lanza killed his mother at their home and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • In this photo taken with a fisheye lens, a message honoring the victims that died a day earlier when a gunman opened fire at an elementary hang from a bridge near Hawley Pond, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Mourners carry ornaments to decorate the Christmas trees at one of the makeshift memorials for the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting victims, Monday,Dec. 17, 2012 in Newtown, Conn. Authorities say gunman Adam Lanza killed his mother at their home on Friday and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Mary Altaffer)

  • Crayons sit on a table outside of a barbershop a day after a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in the Sandy Hook village of Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Crayons sit on a table outside of a barbershop a day after a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in the Sandy Hook village of Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Tamara Doherty

    Shop owner Tamara Doherty, paces outside her store just down the road from Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Tamara Doherty, Jackie Gaudet

    Shop owners Tamara Doherty, left, and Jackie Gaudet, right, meet outside their stores for the first time since being neighbors, just down the road from Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Kristin Hoyt

    Kristin Hoyt, 18, of Danbury, Conn., ties a balloon to an overpass up the road from the Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • A Newtown, Conn., resident, who declined to give her name, sits at an intersection holding a sign for passing motorists up the road from the Sandy Hook Elementary School, Saturday, Dec. 15, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. The massacre of 26 children and adults at Sandy Hook Elementary school elicited horror and soul-searching around the world even as it raised more basic questions about why the gunman, 20-year-old Adam Lanza, would have been driven to such a crime and how he chose his victims. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • A snowflake ornament with the name of 6-year-old Noah Pozner hangs on a Christmas tree at a makeshift memorial in the Sandy Hook village of Newtown, Conn., Monday, Dec. 17, 2012, as the town mourns victims killed in Friday's school shooting. Pozner, who was killed Friday when gunman Adam Lanza opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School, will be buried Monday. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Twenty-seven small U.S. flags adorn a large flag on a makeshift memorial on the side of Highway 84 near the Newtown, Conn., town line as residents mourn victims killed by gunman Adam Lanza, Monday, Dec. 17, 2012. Authorities say Lanza killed his mother at their home and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life, on Friday. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Jamie Duncan, 16, of Newtown, Conn., lights a candle at one of the makeshift memorials for the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting victims, Monday,Dec. 17, 2012 in Newtown, Conn. Authorities say gunman Adam Lanza killed his mother at their home on Friday and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Mary Altaffer)

  • A mourner carries a giant Winnie the Pooh stuffed animal to place at one of the makeshift memorials for the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting victims, Monday,Dec. 17, 2012 in Newtown, Conn. Authorities say gunman Adam Lanza killed his mother at their home on Friday and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Mary Altaffer)

  • A hearse arrives at B'nai Israel Cemetery with the body of Noah Pozner, a six-year-old killed in an elementary school shooting, during funeral services, Monday, Dec. 17, 2012, in Monroe, Conn. Authorities say gunman Adam Lanza killed his mother at their home on Friday and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • People arrive at B'nai Israel Cemetery during burial services for Noah Pozner, a six-year-old killed in the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Monday, Dec. 17, 2012, in Monroe, Conn. Authorities say gunman Adam Lanza killed his mother at their home on Friday and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children, before taking his own life. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Veronika Pozner

    Veronique Pozner waves to the assembled media as she leaves after a funeral service for her 6-year-old son Noah Pozner, Monday, Dec. 17, 2012, in Fairfield, Conn. Noah Pozner was killed when Adam Lanza walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn., Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/Jason DeCrow)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Twenty seven wooden stand in a yard down the street from the Sandy Hook School December 16, 2012 in Newtown, Connecticut. Twenty-six people were shot dead, including twenty children, after a gunman identified as Adam Lanza opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School. Lanza also reportedly had committed suicide at the scene. A 28th person, believed to be Nancy Lanza, found dead in a house in town, was also believed to have been shot by Adam Lanza. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Newtown residents Claire Swanson, Kate Suba, Jaden Albrecht, Simran Chand and New London, Connecticut residents Rachel Pullen and her son Landon DeCecco, hold candles at a memorial for victims on the first Sunday following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 16, 2012 in Newtown, Connecticut. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    U.S. President Barack Obama waits to speak at an interfaith vigil for the shooting victims from Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 16, 2012 at Newtown High School in Newtown, Connecticut. (Photo by Olivier Douliery-Pool/Getty Images)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Eknoor Kaur, 3, stands with her father Guramril Singh during a candlelight vigil outside Newtown High School before an interfaith vigil with President Barack Obama, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/Jason DeCrow)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    New London, Connecticut resident Rachel Pullen (C) kisses her son Landon DeCecco at a memorial for victims near the school on the first Sunday following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 16, 2012 in Newtown, Connecticut. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    US President Barack Obama speaks during a memorial service for the victims and relatives of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 16, 2012 in Newtown, Connecticut. Twenty-six people were killed when a gunman entered Sandy Hook Elementary and began a shooting spree. AFP PHOTO/Mandel NGAN

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    A woman covers her face as US President Barack Obama reads out the names of children killed during Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting at a interfaith memorial for victims and relatives at the Newtown High School on December 16, 2012 in Newtown, Connecticut. Twenty-six people were killed when a gunman entered Sandy Hook Elementary and began a shooting spree. AFP PHOTO/Mandel NGAN

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    A woman pays respects at a memorial outside of St. Rose of Lima Roman Catholic Church, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. On Friday, a gunman allegedly killed his mother at their home and then opened fire inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Residents wait for the start of an interfaith vigil for the victims of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012 at Newtown High School in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Cheryl Girardi, of Middletown, Conn., kneels beside 26 teddy bears, each representing a victim of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, at a sidewalk memorial, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children.(AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Connecticut State Police officers respond to a bomb threat outside of St. Rose of Lima Roman Catholic Church, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. Worshippers hurriedly left the church Sunday, not far from where a gunman opened fire Friday inside the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Ava Staiti, 7, of New Milford, Conn., looks up at her mother Emily Staiti, not pictured, while visiting a sidewalk memorial with 26 teddy bears, each representing a victim of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    This photo provided by the family shows Jessica Rekos. Rekos, 6, was killed Friday, Dec. 14, 2012, when a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School, in Newtown, Conn., killing 26 children and adults at the school, before killing himself. (AP Photo/Courtesy of Rekos Family)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    A U.S. flag flies at half staff outside the Newtown High School before President Barack Obama is scheduled to attend a memorial for the victims of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    David Freedman, right, kneels with his son Zachary, 9, both of Newtown, Conn., as they visit a sidewalk memorial for the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting victims, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    A man reacts at the site of a makeshift memorial for school shooting victims in Newtown, Conn., Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012. A gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School in the town, killing 26 people, including 20 children before killing himself on Friday. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    People wait in line to attend an interfaith vigil with President Barack Obama, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/Jason DeCrow)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Residents greet each other before the start of an interfaith vigil for the victims of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012 at Newtown High School in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. (AP Photo/ Evan Vucci)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Residents greet each other before the start of an interfaith vigil for the victims of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, at Newtown High School in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into the school Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. President Barack Obama is to scheduled to speak at the event. (AP Photo/ Evan Vucci)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Residents greet each other before the start of an interfaith vigil for the victims of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012, at Newtown High School in Newtown, Conn. A gunman walked into the elementary school Friday and opened fire, killing 26 people, including 20 children. President Barack Obama is scheduled to speak during the vigil. (AP Photo/ Evan Vucci)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    This image provided by the family shows Grace McDonnell posing for a portrait in this family photo taken Aug. 18, 2012. Grace McDonnell was killed Friday, Dec. 14, 2012, when a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn., killing 26 children and adults at the school. (AP Photo/Courtesy of the McDonnell Family)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    This Nov. 18, 2012 photo provided by John Engel shows Olivia Engel, 6, in Danbury, Conn. Olivia Engel, was killed Friday, Dec. 14, 2012, when a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School, in Newtown, Conn., killing 26 children and adults at the school. (AP Photo/Engel Family, Tim Nosezo)

  • Emilie Alice Parker

    This 2012 photo provided by the family shows Emilie Alice Parker. Parker was killed Friday, Dec. 14, 2012, when a gunman opened fire at Sandy Hook elementary school in Newtown, Conn., killing 26 children and adults at the school. (AP Photo/Courtesy of the Parker Family)

  • Noah Pozner

    This Nov. 13, 2012 photo provided by the family via The Washington Post shows Noah Pozner. The six-year-old was one of the victims in the Sandy Hook elementary school shooting in Newtown, Conn. on Dec. 14, 2012. (AP Photo/Family Photo)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    This handout image provided by ABC News, shows Nancy J. Lanza mother of suspected mass shooter Adam Lanza at an unspecified time and place. Twenty six people were shot dead, including twenty children, after a gunman identified as Adam Lanza opened fire at Sandy Hook Elementary School. Lanza also reportedly had committed suicide at the scene. A 28th person, believed to be Nancy Lanza was found dead in a house in town, was also believed to have been shot by Adam Lanza. (Family of Nancy Lanza / ABC News / Getty Images)

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20121215/us-school-shooting-victims/?utm_hp_ref=homepage&ir=homepage">Lauren Rousseau, 30,</a> had started a job as a full-time teacher at Sandy Hook Elementary School this fall. She was killed in the Dec. 14 shooting at the school.

  • Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    School psychologist Mary Sherlach, 56, was killed during an attempt to stop gunman Adam Lanza during the Dec. 14 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20121215/us-school-shooting-victims/?utm_hp_ref=homepage&ir=homepage">Sherlach and school principal Dawn Hochsprung</a> reportedly both lunged at Lanza in an attempt to protect the school's students and teachers. Both Sherlach and Hochsprung were killed.

Lire aussi:
» Dan Véléa : Stress et stress post-traumatique

Certes le lieu a changé. Mais le nom de l'école a été maintenu. La Chalk Hill Middle School ayant été rebaptisée Sandy Hook. À leur arrivée, les élèves ont été chaleureusement accueillis, un coffret surprise contenant des cadeaux les attendant. Si les enseignants étaient présents, l'établissement n'accueillait pas uniquement les élèves mais aussi les parents, qui ont ainsi pu accompagner leurs enfants jusque dans l'école. Un geste évidemment tout aussi important pour eux.

"Lavage" symbolique

Qu'adviendra-t-il de la vraie école de Sandy Hook, celle où a eu lieu le drame? Seule l'histoire nous le dira puisque l'établissement est toujours sous scellés. À Columbine, par exemple, la bibliothèque de l'établissement où avaient été tués 12 personnes a été intégralement détruite après le drame pour laisser place à un mémorial. Symboliquement "lavé", le lieu a pu être l'objet d'une réappropriation.


De même au Norris Hall de Virginia Tech où Seung-Hui Cho avait tué 33 personnes en 2007. Immédiatement fermé pendant les mois qui ont suivi la tuerie, le lieu a été rouvert. S'il est toujours en utilisation, Virginia Tech a annoncé qu'il serait intégralement rénové et peu à peu vidé de ses salles de classes. Là encore donc, le lieu du drame est réinvesti après avoir été lavé de ses tâches.

En Belgique, le drame du stade du Heysel en 1985, du nom de ce stade situé à Bruxelles, a entâché le football européen. Il eut lieu à l'occasion de la finale de Coupe d'Europe des clubs champions 1984-1985 entre le Liverpool Football Club et la Juventus Football Club dont faisait partie Michel Platini. Un match, 600 blessés et 39 morts plus tard, le stade du Heysel fut conservé mais rebaptisé stade Roi-Baudouin, symbole d'unité s'il en est dans une Belgique fédérale. Michel Platini, lui, n'a jamais souhaité revenir dans le stade.


En France, c'est ce qui s'est passé à l'école juive Ozar Hatorah de Toulouse, devant laquelle Mohammed Merah avait tué un adulte et trois enfants juifs. À la rentrée 2011, l'école a été rebaptisée Ohr Torah. "Il ne s'agit pas d'oublier, mais de signifier, je pense, que quelque chose de nouveau commence", expliquait alors Nicole Yardeni, présidente du CRIF Midi-Pyrénées à nos confrères de La Dépêche.

Résilience et culpabilité

Au-delà des victimes et de leurs familles, la réappropriation du lieu touche la communauté et à un degré supérieur, l'ensemble de la société au sein de laquelle le drame a eu lieu.

Pour la chercheuse à l'École normale supérieure Magali Reghezza, codirectrice de l'ouvrage, Résiliences urbaines, les villes faces aux catastrophes, les réactions face à ces drames sont l'objet de différences largement déterminées par la culture. "Chaque société invente des façons de faire renaître le lien avec ses pratiques associées à la mémoire et à ses lieux" explique-t-elle. "Les américains sont des survivants, empreints d'optimisme, alors qu'en Europe, la mémoire est douloureuse."

Résilience : après un drame, on appelle résilience le phénomène psychologique qui consiste à prendre acte d'un phénomène traumatique pour se reconstruire. Popularisé par le neurologue et psychiatre Boris Cyrulnik, le terme s'est démocratisé si bien qu'on parle aujourd'hui de résilience pour des communautés.
Lire aussi: » 11 septembre 2012, la renaissance

L'exemple type de cette résilience américaine, c'est évidemment Ground Zero. Une dizaine d'année après les attentats du 11 septembre, l'histoire parle d'elle-même. Un mémorial oui, mais une nouvelle tour, tout un symbole, à deux doigts d'être achevée. Les 100 000 emplois et 1,3 millions de mètres carrés détruits par l'effondrement des tours ne sont désormais plus qu'un mauvais souvenir. Mais peut-être plus important encore, la réappropriation du lieu du drame est l'occasion d'une renaissance et du grand récit culturel de cette renaissance.

23 images inoubliables du 11 septembre, compilées par nos collègues du HuffPost américain
L'article se poursuit après le diaporama

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  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    In this Sept. 11, 2001 file photo, United Airlines Flight 175 approaches the south tower of the World Trade Center in New York shortly before collision as smoke billows from the north tower.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A hijacked commercial plane approaches the World Trade Center shortly before crashing into the landmark skyscraper Sept. 11, 2001 in New York.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 from Boston crashes into the south tower of the World Trade Center and explodes at 9:03 a.m. on September 11, 2001 in New York City.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Pedestrians on the waterfront in Brooklyn, New York, look across the East River to the burning World Trade Center towers Sept. 11, 2001 after a terrorist attack.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A helicopter flies over the Pentagon in Washington, Tuesday, Sept. 11, 2001 as smoke billows over the building. The Pentagon took a direct, devastating hit from an aircraft and the enduring symbols of American power were evacuated.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Smoke comes out from the Southwest E-ring of the Pentagon building September 11, 2001 in Arlington, Va., after a plane crashed into the building and set off a huge explosion.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Officials examine the crater Sept. 11, 2001 at the crash site of United Airlines Flight 93 in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Photo dated Sept. 11, 2001 shows US President George W. Bush being informed by his chief of staff Andrew Card of the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York during an early morning school reading event in Sarasota, Florida.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A person falls from the north tower of New York's World Trade Center Tuesday Sept. 11, 2001 after terrorists crashed two hijacked airliners into the World Trade Center and brought down the twin 110-story towers.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    The south tower of New York's World Trade Center collapses Tuesday Sept. 11, 2001. In one of the most horrifying attacks ever against the United States, terrorists crashed two airliners into the World Trade Center in a deadly series of blows that brought down the twin 110-story towers.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    In this Tuesday, Sept. 11, 2001 file photo, people run from a cloud of debris from the collapse of a World Trade Center tower in New York.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A firefighter breaks down after the World Trade Center buildings collapsed September 11, 2001 after two hijacked airplanes slammed into the twin towers in a terrorist attack.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    This September 11, 2001 file photo shows Marcy Borders covered in dust as she takes refuge in an office building after one of the World Trade Center towers collapsed in New York. Borders was caught outside on the street as the cloud of smoke and dust enveloped the area. The woman was caught outside on the street as the cloud of smoke and dust enveloped the area.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A man with a fire extinguisher walks through rubble after the collapse of the first World Trade Center Tower September 11, 2001, in New York. The man was shouting as he walked looking for victims who needed assistance.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    An unidentified woman reacts moments after watching both of the nearby World Trade Center towers collapse Tuesday, Sept. 11, 2001, in New York. She was among the residents of the nearby Battery Park City apartment complex waiting to be evacuated from the area.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    In this Tuesday, Sept. 11, 2001 file photo, rubble and ash fill lower Manhattan streets after two hijacked airliners were crashed into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York, collapsing them. (AP Photo/Boudicon One)

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    This NASA Landsat image taken on Sept. 11, 2001 shows that the damage and smoke from the terrorist attacks could be seen from space.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    A view of the remains of an ambulance in front of the Millenium Hotel at Ground Zero after the collapse of both towers of the World Trade Center following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in New York, New York, USA.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    The rubble of the World Trade Center smoulders following a terrorist attack Sept. 11, 2001 in New York.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Firefighters raise a U.S. flag at the site of the World Trade Center after two hijacked commercial airliners were flown into the buildings September 11, 2001 in New York.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    The sky glows orange as the sun rises over the damaged side of the Pentagon with the US Capitol behind in Washington, DC, 13 September, 2001.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    U.S. President George W. Bush speaks to rescue workers, firefighters and police officers from the rubble of Ground Zero September 14, 2001 in New York City.

  • Unforgettable 9/11 Images

    Photo dated Sept. 11, 2001 shows firefighters making their way through the rubble of the World Trade Center in New York after two hijacked planes flew into the landmark skyscrapers.

"Il s'ancre dans une trame culturelle profonde, que la géographe Julie Hernandez qualifie "d'optimisme de la catastrophe, héritage historico-religieux de la culture pionnière et d'un eschatologisme d'inspiration protestante, qui n'aime rien tant que l'imagerie résurrectionnelle, la rédemption et le triomphe après les épreuves, lus comme le signe d'une élection divine". En résumé, la catastrophe est certes un drame épouvantable, mais elle est aussi considérée comme une destruction créatrice, une opportunité de reconstruire en plus grand, plus fort, plus sûr, qui permet de montrer la valeur individuelle et collective de ceux qui ont été frappés jusque dans leur chair, mais qui font face, surmontent et s'améliorent." Magali Reghezza

Côté européen, on aurait au contraire tendance à effacer les traces. "Le mur des Fédérés à Paris, il faut chercher pour le trouver", plaisante la chercheuse. De la même manière, il aura fallu le roman de Pierre Assouline pour se rappeler de quoi l'hôtel parisien Lutetia avait été témoin pendant la Seconde guerre mondiale. "Notre histoire est empreinte de culpabilité et de repentance, on conserve la mémoire, mais des traces, on ne garde que le mininum, au mieux une plaque commémorative," explique la chercheuse.

Une plaque commémorative, c'est justement ce qu'on trouve au numéro 7 de la rue Nélaton, dans le 15è arrondissement de Paris. Détruit en 1959, c'est ici que se trouvait le Vel d'Hiv. Après la Seconde guerre mondiale, celui-ci continua d'accueillir matchs de boxes, défilés de mode, épreuves équestres et même la dernière corrida ayant eu lieu à Paris en 1949. Comble de la honte, en 1958, il accueillit un centre de rétention de citoyens algériens sur ordre du préfet de Paris nouvellement appointé. Son nom: Maurice Papon.

De l'optimisme américain ou de la repentance européenne, l'un vaudrait-il mieux que l'autre? "En Europe, cela nous fait mal de tirer les leçons du passé, aux Etats-Unis, ils ont tendance à trop tirer bénéfice des catastrophes," explique la chercheuse. "Aucun modèle n'est parfait," conclut-elle. À chacun ses défauts.