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30/06/2015 04:40 EDT | Actualisé 30/06/2015 04:41 EDT

Cuba 1er pays à éliminer la transmission du VIH de la mère à l'enfant, selon l'OMS

Shutterstock / Sebastian Kaulitzki

L'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) a officiellement déclaré mardi Cuba comme le premier pays au monde à avoir éliminé la transmission du virus du sida (VIH) et de la syphilis de la mère à l'enfant.

"Eliminer la transmission d'un virus est l'un des plus grands accomplissements en matière de santé publique", a déclaré la Dr Margaret Chan, directrice générale de l'OMS.

"C'est une victoire majeure dans notre longue lutte contre le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et les infections transmises sexuellement, ainsi qu'un pas important vers l'objectif d'une génération sans sida", a-t-elle ajouté dans un communiqué.

Ce succès de Cuba "montre qu'un accès universel à une couverture médicale et aux soins est possible et est en fait la clé du succès même contre des défis aussi immenses que le sida", a souligné quant à elle la Dr Carissa Etienne, directrice de l'Organisation panaméricaine de la santé (OPS), lors d'une conférence de presse.

Cette élimination de la transmission du VIH de la mère à l'enfant "prouve qu'il est possible de mettre fin à la pandémie de sida et nous nous attendons à ce que Cuba soit, parmi de nombreux pays, le premier à parvenir à mettre fin à cette épidémie parmi les enfants", a déclaré Michel Sidibé, le directeur général de Onusida.

Selon l'OMS, environ 1,4 million de femmes infectées par le VIH tombent enceintes chaque année dans le monde, pour la plupart dans les pays en développement et notamment en Afrique subsaharienne.

Sans traitement avec des antirétroviraux, elles ont de 15 à 45% de risques de transmettre le VIH à leur enfant pendant la grossesse, l'accouchement ou en donnant le sein.

Cependant, ce risque est quasiment éliminé, tombant à un peu plus de 1% si la mère prend des antirétroviraux pendant la grossesse ainsi que l'enfant juste après sa naissance.

Le nombre d'enfants qui naissent séropositifs annuellement a été presque divisé par deux depuis 2009 en passant de 400 000 cette année-là à 240 000 en 2013.

Mais il faut redoubler d'efforts pour pouvoir atteindre l'objectif actuel de moins de 40 000 enfants infectés annuellement par le VIH par leur mère.

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INOLTRE SU HUFFPOST

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    1950 - Cars are parked along a narrow street as pedestrians walk in the shade in Havana, Cuba. At the time, the cars were considered new models. Now the same cars are still being driven.
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    Circa 1950 - Children play outside their shanty homes in Oriente Province, Cuba.
  • Gilberto Ante/Roger Viollet/Getty Images
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    1994 - Farmer with an ox team in the Vinales Valley, Cuba. Cuban farming has struggled in recent years due to the lack of availability of modern farm equipment, The Telegraph reports.
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    2009 - A Cuban schoolgirl sits at the foot of the entrance stairways in Havana.
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    2012 - People fill the street in a busy downtown neighborhood in Santiago de Cuba.
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    2012 - Cars drive down a street in Havana.
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