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31/07/2014 03:23 EDT | Actualisé 30/09/2014 05:12 EDT

Ebola: l'OMS annonce un plan de lutte de 100 M$ (VIDÉO)

Craignant la propagation de plus en plus rapide du virus de l'Ebola, l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) a annoncé aujourd'hui un plan de lutte de 100 millions de dollars. Washington de son côté accueillera la semaine prochaine un sommet africain sur les moyens de venir en aide aux pays touchés.

Margaret Chan, directrice générale de l'organisation onusienne, a souligné que l'ampleur de l'épidémie et « la menace persistante qu'elle pose, exigent de l'OMS et de la Guinée, du Liberia et de la Sierra Leone une réponse à un nouveau niveau, ce qui nécessitera une augmentation des ressources ».

Plus tôt dans la journée, la Sierra Leone a déclaré l'état d'urgence sanitaire. Le président Ernest Bai Koroma a promis de placer en quarantaine, chez eux, tous les patients malades et de mener des recherches porte-à-porte pour tenter de retrouver ceux qui pourraient avoir été exposés au virus.

Au Liberia voisin, le gouvernement a également adopté des mesures strictes, mercredi soir, annonçant la fermeture des écoles, après avoir fermé la plupart de ses postes-frontières lundi. Il envisage aussi de placer en quarantaine les communautés les plus touchées par l'épidémie. 

Les fonctionnaires libériens dont l'activité n'est pas essentielle ont été mis en congé pour 30 jours, en vertu d'un plan national contre la maladie. Un centre d'isolement prévu pour les malades de l'Ebola dans la capitale libérienne, Monrovia, est débordé par l'afflux de patients, a déclaré la secrétaire d'État à la Santé, Tolbert Nyenswah, mercredi.

Cette épidémie de fièvre Ebola est la plus grave jamais enregistrée, selon l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS). Le bilan en Afrique de l'Ouest ne cesse de s'aggraver avec plus de 1300 cas et 729 morts au 27 juillet, dont 57 entre les 23 et 27 juillet.

Entre les 23 et 27 juillet, 122 nouveaux cas ainsi que 57 décès ont été signalés en Guinée, au Liberia, au Nigeria et en Sierra Leone, précise l'OMS.

Plusieurs dizaines de médecins ou infirmiers sont morts de la maladie après avoir soigné des personnes atteintes.

Le département d'État américain a confirmé qu'un Américainétait mort de la fièvre Ebola au Nigeria après l'avoir attrapée au Liberia. Deux autres employés humanitaires américains contaminés par le virus Ebola sont dans un état préoccupant, qui s'est cependant légèrement amélioré.

Au Nigeria, l'échantillon du premier cas mortel d'Ebola dans ce pays n'a pas été encore envoyé aux experts de l'OMS à Dakar, car les sociétés de messagerie s'y opposent, a expliqué l'agence onusienne. 

Pas d'épidémie majeure hors d'Afrique

Le codécouvreur du virus Ebola, le professeur belge Peter Piot, se veut rassurant. Il écarte l'éventualité d'une épidémie majeure hors d'Afrique, dans une entrevue accordée à l'agence AFP. Il ne croit pas qu'une personne porteuse d'Ebola qui voyagerait en Europe, aux États-Unis ou dans une autre partie de l'Afrique, engendrerait une épidémie majeure.

Le professeur demande à ce que les vaccins et traitements expérimentaux, qui sont prometteurs chez les animaux, soient testés sur les humains dans les zones touchées.

Peter Piot, qui est actuellement le directeur de la prestigieuse London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, a codécouvert le virus Ebola en 1976. Il n'avait à l'époque que 27 ans. Il a par la suite été directeur du programme ONUSIDA des Nations unies.

Pas de restrictions aériennes

Aucune restriction de voyage ni de fermeture de frontière en raison de l'Ebola n'a été recommandée, selon l'OMS. Par ailleurs, l'Association du transport aérien international indique que le risque serait faible pour les autres passagers dans le cas où une personne à bord d'un avion avait la fièvre Ebola.

L'Association du transport aérien international a publié cette déclaration jeudi, après plusieurs jours de consultation avec l'OMS et l'Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (OACI), à la suite de la mort d'un homme du virus Ebola, après qu'il eut pris un vol international du Liberia au Nigeria avec une escale à Lomé, au Togo.

INOLTRE SU HUFFPOST

  • ASSOCIATED PRESS
    In this photo taken on Sunday, July 27, 2014, Medical personnel inside a clinic taking care of Ebola patients in the Kenema District on the outskirts of Kenema, Sierra Leone. Liberia President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has closed some border crossings and ordered strict quarantines of communities affected by the Ebola outbreak. The announcement late Sunday came a day after Sirleaf formed a new taskforce charged with containing the disease, which has killed 129 people in the country and more than 670 across the region.(AP Photo/ Youssouf Bah)
  • ASSOCIATED PRESS
    In this photo taken on Sunday, July 27, 2014, medical personnel work at the Doctors Without Borders facility in Kailahun, Sierra Leone where Dr. Sheik Humarr Khan died. A leading doctor who risked his own life to treat dozens of Ebola patients died Tuesday, July 29, 2014, from the disease, officials said, as a major regional airline announced it was suspending flights to the cities hardest hit by an outbreak that has killed more than 670 people. Dr. Sheik Humarr Khan, who was praised as a national hero for treating the disease in Sierra Leone, was confirmed dead by health ministry officials there. He had been hospitalized in quarantine. (AP Photo/ Youssouf Bah)
  • CELLOU BINANI via Getty Images
    A picture taken on June 28, 2014 shows a member of Doctors Without Borders (MSF) putting on protective gear at the isolation ward of the Donka Hospital in Conakry, where people infected with the Ebola virus are being treated. The World Health Organization has warned that Ebola could spread beyond hard-hit Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to neighbouring nations, but insisted that travel bans were not the answer. To date, there have been 635 cases of haemorrhagic fever in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, most confirmed as Ebola. A total of 399 people have died, 280 of them in Guinea. AFP PHOTO / CELLOU BINANI (Photo credit should read CELLOU BINANI/AFP/Getty Images)
  • CELLOU BINANI via Getty Images
    A member of Doctors Without Borders (MSF) (C-L) supervises the unloading of protection and healthcare material on July 22, 2014 at Conakry\'s airport, to fight the spread of the Ebola virus and treat people who have been already infected. The death toll in West Africa\'s Ebola outbreak has risen to 603, the World Health Organization (WHO) said last week, with 68 new fatalities mostly in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The UN health agency said the new deaths were recorded between July 8 and 12, and that 52 of them were in Sierra Leone, 13 in Liberia and three in Guinea, which had previously borne the brunt of the outbreak. Ebola first emerged in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is named after a river in that country. AFP PHOTO / CELLOU BINANI (Photo credit should read CELLOU BINANI/AFP/Getty Images)
  • CELLOU BINANI via Getty Images
    A member of Doctors Without Borders (MSF) wearing protective gear walks outside the isolation ward of the Donka Hospital, on July 23, 2014 in Conakry. A Liberian man has been hospitalised in Lagos with Ebola-like symptoms, but it is not yet clear if he is infected with the killer virus, Nigerian officials said on July 24. Ebola first emerged in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is named after a river in that country. AFP PHOTO / CELLOU BINANI (Photo credit should read CELLOU BINANI/AFP/Getty Images)
  • ZOOM DOSSO via Getty Images
    A picture taken on July 24, 2014 shows a staff member of the Christian charity Samaritan\'s Purse spraying product as he treats the premises outside the ELWA hospital in the Liberian capital Monrovia. An American doctor battling West Africa\'s Ebola epidemic has himself fallen sick with the disease in Liberia, Samaritan\'s Purse said on July 27. AFP PHOTO / ZOOM DOSSO (Photo credit should read ZOOM DOSSO/AFP/Getty Images)
  • ZOOM DOSSO via Getty Images
    A picture taken on July 24, 2014 shows a staff member of the Christian charity Samaritan\'s Purse wearing protective gear in the ELWA hospital in the Liberian capital Monrovia. An American doctor battling West Africa\'s Ebola epidemic has himself fallen sick with the disease in Liberia, Samaritan\'s Purse said on July 27. AFP PHOTO / ZOOM DOSSO (Photo credit should read ZOOM DOSSO/AFP/Getty Images)
  • ZOOM DOSSO via Getty Images
    A picture taken on July 24, 2014 shows staff of the Christian charity Samaritan\'s Purse putting on protective gear in the ELWA hospital in the Liberian capital Monrovia. An American doctor battling West Africa\'s Ebola epidemic has himself fallen sick with the disease in Liberia, Samaritan\'s Purse said on July 27. AFP PHOTO / ZOOM DOSSO (Photo credit should read ZOOM DOSSO/AFP/Getty Images)
  • ZOOM DOSSO via Getty Images
    A picture taken on July 24, 2014 shows protective gear including boots, gloves, masks and suits, drying after being used in a treatment room in the ELWA hospital in the Liberian capital Monrovia. An American doctor battling West Africa\'s Ebola epidemic has himself fallen sick with the disease in Liberia, Christian charity Samaritan\'s Purse said on July 27. AFP PHOTO / ZOOM DOSSO (Photo credit should read ZOOM DOSSO/AFP/Getty Images)
  • In this March 28, 2014 photo provided by Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders), healthcare workers from the organization prepare isolation and treatment areas for their Ebola virus operations in Gueckedou, Guinea. One preacher advocated fasting and prayer to spare people from a virus that usually leads to a horrible death. Some people pray that the Ebola virus stays confined to a rural district. Others are unruffled and say the outbreak will blow over. (Kjell Gunnar Beraas/MSF/AP)
  • Workers from Doctors Without Borders prepare isolation and treatment areas for their Ebola virus operations in Gueckedou, Guinea. (Kjell Gunnar Beraas/MSF/AP)
  • A member of Doctors Without Borders puts on protective gear at the isolation ward of the Donka Hospital in Conakry, where people infected with the Ebola virus are being treated. (Cellou Binani/AFP/Getty Images)
  • Health specialists work at an isolation ward for patients at the Doctors Without Borders facility in Gueckedou, southern Guinea. (Seyllou/AFP/Getty Images)
  • Dr. Kent Brantly, left, treats an Ebola patient at the Samaritan\'s Purse Ebola Case Management Center in Monrovia, Liberia. On Saturday, July 26, 2014, the North Carolina-based aid organization said Brantly tested positive for the disease. (Samaritan\'s Purse/AP)
  • Doctors Without Borders staff members carry the body of a person killed by viral haemorrhagic fever at a center for victims of the Ebola virus in Gueckedou, on April 1, 2014. (Seyllou/AFP/Getty Images)
  • Health specialists work in an isolation ward for patients at the Doctors Without Borders facility in Gueckedou, southern Guinea. (Seyllou/AFP/Getty Images)
  • A view of gloves and boots used by medical staff, drying in the sun, at a center for victims of the Ebola virus in Gueckedou, on April 1, 2014. (Seyllou/AFP/Getty Images)
  • A 10-year-old boy is showered after being taken out of quarantine following his mother\'s death caused by the Ebola virus, in the Christian charity Samaritan\'s Purse Ebola treatment center at the ELWA hospital in the Liberian capital Monrovia, on July 24, 2014. (Zoom Dosso/AFP/Getty Images)
  • A health specialist works in a laboratory set up in a tent at an isolation ward for patients at the Doctors Without Borders facility in Gueckedou, southern Guinea. (Seyllou/AFP/Getty Images)
  • View of an isolation center for people infected with Ebola at Donka Hospital in Conakry. (Cellou Binani/AFP/Getty Images)
  • A worker loads material including protection gear for Doctors Without Borders at the airport of Conakry on March 29, 2014. (Cellou Binani/AFP/Getty Images)
  • The owners of a \"maquis,\" a small African restaurant in Kobakro, outside Abidjan, which used to serve bush meat, hold up the different types of meat and fish they now offer to their clients. The Ministry of Health has asked Ivorians, \"particularly fond of porcupine and agouti,\" a small rodent, to avoid consuming or handling bushmeat, as an unprecedented Ebola epidemic hit West Africa. The virus can spread to animal primates and humans who handle infected meat -- a risk given the informal trade in \"bushmeat\" in forested central and west Africa. (Issouf Sanogo/AFP/Getty Images)
  • A pharmacist searches for drugs in a pharmacy in Lagos on July 26, 2014. Nigeria was on alert against the possible spread of Ebola on July 26, a day after the first confirmed death from the virus in Lagos, the country\'s financial capital and Africa\'s biggest city. The health ministry said Friday that a 40-year-old Liberian man died at a private hospital in Lagos from the disease, which has now killed more than 650 people in four west African countries since January. (Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty Images)
  • The Arwa clinic (center) that was closed after the clinic doctor was infected by the Ebola virus in the capital city of Freetown, Sierra Leone. Ebola had never before been seen in this part of West Africa. (Youssouf Bah/AP)
  • In this photo taken July 27, 2014, medical personnel are pictured inside a clinic taking care of Ebola patients in the Kenema District on the outskirts of Kenema, Sierra Leone. Liberia President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has closed some border crossings and ordered strict quarantines of communities affected by the Ebola outbreak. The announcement late Sunday came a day after Sirleaf formed a new taskforce charged with containing the disease, which has killed 129 people in the country and more than 670 across the region. (Youssouf Bah/AP)
  • Health workers teach people about the Ebola virus and how to prevent infection, in Conakry, Guinea, on March 31, 2014. (Youssouf Bah/AP)
  • This photo provided by the CDC shows an Ebola virus. U.S. health officials are monitoring the Ebola outbreak in Africa but say the risk of the deadly germ spreading to the United States is remote. (CDC/AP)
  • Dr. David McRay speaks about his friend and colleague Dr. Kent Brantly during a news conference on Monday, July 28, 2014, in Fort Worth, Texas. Brantly is one of two American aid workers that have tested positive for the Ebola virus while working to combat an outbreak of the deadly disease at a hospital in Liberia. (LM Otero/AP)
  • CELLOU BINANI via Getty Images
    Members of the Guinean Red Cross walk during an awareness campaign on the Ebola virus on April 11, 2014 in Conakry. Guinea has been hit by the most severe strain of the virus, known as Zaire Ebola, which has had a fatality rate of up to 90 percent in past outbreaks, and for which there is no vaccine, cure or even specific treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) has described west Africa\'s first outbreak among humans as one of the most challenging since the virus emerged in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. AFP PHOTO / CELLOU BINANI (Photo credit should read CELLOU BINANI/AFP/Getty Images)
  • ASSOCIATED PRESS
    Health workers teach people about the Ebola virus and how to prevent infection, in Conakry, Guinea, Monday, March 31, 2014. Health authorities in Guinea are facing an \"unprecedented epidemic\" of Ebola, the international aid group Doctors Without Borders warned Monday as the death toll from the disease that causes severe bleeding reached 78. The outbreak of Ebola in Guinea poses challenges never seen in previous outbreaks that involved \"more remote locations as opposed to urban areas,\" said Doctors Without Borders. (AP Photo/ Youssouf Bah)