Sarah Sánchez

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«Le début de la fin de l'esclavage»

Publication: 28/03/2013 10:00

Il y a certains aspects de la culture brésilienne auxquels je ne m'habituerai jamais. La relation particulière entre patrons et domestiques, par exemple. Comme lorsqu'à la fin d'un dîner avec la famille de mon mari, une clochette est utilisée pour aviser la bonne qu'il est temps de ramasser la table. Malaise...

Ici, les foyers de classe moyenne ont habituellement une auxiliaire. Une personne pour cuisiner, épousseter, repasser, en plus de prendre soin des enfants et promener le chien. Chez les plus riches, ces tâches sont partagées entre plusieurs serviteurs.

Le Brésil est le pays qui compte le plus grand nombre de travailleurs domestiques au monde : 6,653 millions. 9 sur 10 sont des femmes et 60 % d'entre elles sont noires. Mais les choses ont beaucoup évolué ces dernières années. Les possibilités d'emplois et de cours techniques se sont multipliées, ouvrant ainsi des portes aux plus défavorisés. Entre 2009 et 2011, plus de 500 000 professionnels ont abandonné le métier.

Ce mardi, Brasilia a approuvé un amendement constitutionnel élargissant les droits des employés de maison. Un texte qui, selon Eleonora Menicucci, ministre de la Condition féminine du Brésil, marque «le début de la fin de l'esclavage». Il était plus que temps.

La première loi encadrant le travail des domestiques a été votée en 1972, 29 ans après l'instauration de la législation travailliste brésilienne. En 1988, une deuxième mesure a été adoptée. Avec la toute dernière révision entérinée cette semaine, ménagères, cuisinières nourrices, jardiniers et chauffeurs ont enfin le même statut que les autres travailleurs du pays. 16 nouveaux droits leur ont été accordés. La journée de 8 heures, les heures supplémentaires payées et l'assurance en cas d'accident de travail sont parmi les acquis. Une avancée historique qui démontre que le peuple brésilien prend de la maturité, même si la lutte contre les inégalités sociales ne fait pas le bonheur de tous.

Dans ses pages éditoriales, le plus important journal de Rio, O Globo, s'est positionné contre la réforme, argumentant que ce changement allait engendrer un poids sur une classe moyenne déjà trop imposée, et par conséquent, entraîner des mises à pied et encourager l'économie informelle. «Entre le fait de compromettre le budget familial ou renvoyer sa domestique, il est facile de prévoir ce que le patron choisira», était-il écrit en exergue.

Voilà la mentalité d'une minorité très bien nantie. Une infime partie de la société qui ne survit pas sans aide domestique et qui croit que les aides-domestiques ne survivent pas sans elle. Ces gens qui n'ont jamais fait un lit et qui ne savent pas comme utiliser une machine à laver. Cette élite réfractaire qui pense que le coût de la vie n'augmente que pour elle et qui n'éprouve aucune empathie pour leurs empregadas, qui elles aussi ont des enfants à nourrir, des devoirs à superviser, des soupers à préparer et des bains à donner. Cette classe convaincue que le travail domestique est un service essentiel qui doit être bon marché. Idée héritée de l'esclavagisme, pourtant aboli il y a 125 ans.

Mais cette bourgeoisie devra s'y faire parce que la victoire des domestiques modifiera les structures sociales. Il y aura des mises à pied, certes, mais heureusement, les perspectives d'avenir ne manquent plus pour celles qui devront changer de carrière. Et pour les autres qui continueront dans le métier, elles verront la relation avec leurs employeurs évoluer. De personnel ou même affectif, le lien deviendra de plus en plus professionnel. Un pas de géant dans un des pays les plus inégalitaires au monde.

VOIR AUSSI: Des images du Carnaval de Rio 2013

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  • A dancer from the Aguia de Ouro samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A reveller of Academicos do Tatuape samba school dances during the first night of Carnival parades in Sao Paulo on February 08, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Una bailarina de la escuela de samba Vai-Vai desfila durante el carnaval en Sao Paulo, el sábado 9 de febrero de 2013 (AP Foto/Andre Penner)

  • A couple dressed as clowns participate in the "Cordao da Bola Preta" street carnival parade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. According to Rio's tourism office, Rio's street Carnival this year will consist of 492 block parties, attended by an estimated five million Carnival enthusiasts. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

  • La escuela de samba Aguia de ouro desfila en su carroza durante el carnaval en Sao Paulo, el sábado 9 de febrero de 2013 (AP Foto/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Aguia de Ouro samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • People dance during the "Ceu na Terra" block carnival parade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. According to Rio's tourism office, Rio's street Carnival this year will consist of 492 block parties, attended by an estimated five million Carnival enthusiasts. (AP Photo/Silvia Izquierdo)

  • A reveler poses for photos during the "Cordao da Bola Preta" street carnival parade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. According to Rio's tourism office, Rio's street Carnival this year will consist of 492 block parties, attended by an estimated five million Carnival enthusiasts. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

  • Dancers from the Dragoes da Real samba school perform on a float during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • Dancers from the Dragoes da Real samba school perform during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A pregnant dancer from the X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • Dancers from the Dragoes da Real samba school perform during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Dragoes da Real samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A pregnant dancer from the X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Vai-Vai samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Vai-Vai samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • Drummers from the Dragoes da Real samba school perform during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Vai-Vai samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • Children from the Vai-Vai samba school perform during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A dancer from the Vai-Vai samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A reveller of X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A dancer from the Vai-Vai samba school performs during a carnival parade in Sao Paulo, Brazil, early Saturday, Feb. 9, 2013. (AP Photo/Andre Penner)

  • A reveller of Aguia de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller of Aguia de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform atop of a float during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers take part in the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller of X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers take part in the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers take part in the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers take part in the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of Vai-vai samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of Vai-vai samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller of Vai-vai samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of Vai-vai samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller of X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller of X-9 Paulistana samba school performs during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers of X-9 Paulistana samba school perform atop of a float during the first night of Carnival parades at Sao Paulo on February 09, 2013. AFP PHOTO / Nelson ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read NELSON ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers take part in the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • General view of the 'Cordao do Bola Preta' traditional carnival band parade along Rio Branco avenue, in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 9, 2013. Carnival was under way in Rio on Saturday with millions set to take to the streets for days of rowdy, joyous parades and festivities, bringing the nation to a halt for its annual wild party. Nearly 800,000 Brazilian and foreign tourists were expected join Rio's six million residents in the celebrations, whose climax comes on Sunday and Monday with the city's top samba schools putting on their extravagant processions led by sexy dancing queens. AFP PHOTO/VANDERLEI ALMEIDA (Photo credit should read VANDERLEI ALMEIDA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • BRAZIL-CARNIVAL-SAO PAULO-PARADE

    Revellers from Rosas de Ouro samba school perform during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller from Rosas de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller from Rosas de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers from Rosas de Ouro samba school perform during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers from Rosas de Ouro samba school perform during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Revellers from Academicos do Tatuape samba school perform atop a float during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A reveller from Rosas de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of carnival parade at the Sambadrome in Sao Paulo,Brazil, on February 9, 2013. AFP PHOTO/YASUYOSHI CHIBA (Photo credit should read YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images)

 

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