Kader A. Abderrahim

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De Tunis au Caire, l'autre voie

Publication: 28/07/2013 18:24

Deux pays, deux révolutions, deux armées, deux partis islamistes, deux peuples divisés. Deux c'est la complémentarité et la dualité. Les événements en Tunisie et en Egypte illustrent l'incapacité de nos dirigeants politiques ou militaires à rechercher l'unité, le compromis, la négociation, le dialogue, pour ne retenir que la dualité.

Deux révolutions

La Tunisie avait ouvert la voie, lors de l'hiver 2010/2011 la révolte gagne l'ensemble du pays après un fait déclencheur: l'immolation d'un marchand ambulant de Sidi Bouzid épuisé par les humiliations, il "enflamme" toute une région, ce vieux pays pétri de culture se réapproprie la parole et recouvre la liberté confisquée pendant plus d'un demi siècle. On s'épuisera vainement à expliquer pourquoi, à ce moment précis, tout un peuple se mobilise pour la même raison: la dignité. Sauf à se référer à la vieille règle du théâtre classique: "unité de temps, unité de lieu, unité d'action". Mais on ne percera pas le mystère, pourquoi là, pourquoi maintenant?

L'Egypte enchaîne quelques semaines plus tard, comme une évidence, comme en écho, comme un lien invisible qui dépasse les frontières et réunit les peuples. Le Pharaon tombera lui aussi, après des semaines de mobilisation à crier le même slogan que les tunisiens: "DÉGAGE". La mondialisation et l'appauvrissement de la population, les divisions internes et les intérêts convergents d'une partie de la bourgeoisie et des islamistes provoquent la chute de Moubarak. Le mouvement islamiste, seule force organisée, est prêt à assumer le pouvoir, pas la gestion d'un pays.

Deux partis islamistes

En Tunisie Ennahda, et en Egypte les Frères musulmans, remportent les élections, le premier scrutin démocratique dans chacun des deux pays. Ceux qui accèdent aux affaires le font après des décennies d'exil ou de clandestinité. Ils sont peu ou pas préparés à gouverner. L'inexpérience, la soif de revanche d'une partie des dirigeants, provoquent rapidement des tensions avec la société. Moins de deux ans après leur accession aux affaires, l'échec est là, terrible, et débouche sur des violences et un climat insurrectionnel.

Deux peuples

Malgré les tensions, les deux peuples, à nouveau réunis, ont la force de se mobiliser, de s'indigner, de manifester. C'est encourageant et rassurant. La liberté de parole acquise ne peut-être reprise. La violence n'est pas une fatalité. Et puis, parmi toutes les similitudes il y en a une qui est particulièrement frappante dans ce contexte. L'appel à l'armée, notamment en Egypte, celle qui a été le bras armé du régime, celle qui réprime. Cette armée retrouve sa place au cœur du jeu politique. La Tunisie est une exception dans le monde arabe, l'armée n'y joue aucun rôle, jusque-là. Les choses vont-elles changer?

Un seul choix

Les deux pays sont aujourd'hui fragilisés par la violence. Une autre voie est possible, l'emprunter suppose la volonté des responsables politiques, surtout ceux qui gouvernent, d'ouvrir le dialogue et de composer un large consensus. C'est le seul choix, l'autre mène à l'abîme.

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  • Enterrement de Mohamed Brahmi

  • Enterrement de Mohamed Brahmi

    Une marée humaine a accompagné Mohamed Brahmi jusqu'au carré des martyrs au cimetière El Jellaz

  • Enterrement de Mohamed Brahmi

    L'armée a transporté me cercueil de Mohamed Brahmi et escorté le cortège funèbre sur le parcours de 10km

  • Hamma El Hammami parmi les figures présentes au sein du cortège funèbre

  • Enterrement de Mohamed Brahmi

    Arrivée du cortège funèbre au cimetière El Jellaz

  • Adieu Mohamed Brahmi

    Les présents récitent la Fatiha après l'inhumation de Mohamed Brahmi



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  • Fireworks light the sky opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi celebrate in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. A statement on the Egyptian president's office's Twitter account has quoted Mohammed Morsi as calling military measures "a full coup." The denouncement was posted shortly after the Egyptian military announced it was ousting Morsi, who was Egypt's first freely elected leader but drew ire with his Islamist leanings. The military says it has replaced him with the chief justice of the Supreme constitutional Court, called for early presidential election and suspended the Islamist-backed constitution.(AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Fireworks light the sky as opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi celebrate in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. Army troops backed by armor and including commandos have deployed across much of the Egyptian capital, near protest sites and at key facilities and major intersections. The deployment is part of a bid by the military to tighten its control of key institutions Wednesday, slapping a travel ban on embattled president Mohammed Morsi and top allies in preparation for an almost certain push to remove the Islamist president with the expiration of an afternoon deadline. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Green laser lights illuminate opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi performing funeral prayers, for Egyptians who were killed during clashes between supporters and opponents of President Morsi, in front of a symbolic coffin, left, covered by the national flag in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. Army troops backed by armor and including commandos have deployed across much of the Egyptian capital, near protest sites and at key facilities and major intersections. The deployment is part of a bid by the military to tighten its control of key institutions Wednesday, slapping a travel ban on embattled president Mohammed Morsi and top allies in preparation for an almost certain push to remove the Islamist president with the expiration of an afternoon deadline. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi celebrate as they light flares and wave national flags and his picture with Arabic reads, "leave", in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. Army troops backed by armor and including commandos have deployed across much of the Egyptian capital, near protest sites and at key facilities and major intersections. The deployment is part of a bid by the military to tighten its control of key institutions Wednesday, slapping a travel ban on embattled president Mohammed Morsi and top allies in preparation for an almost certain push to remove the Islamist president with the expiration of an afternoon deadline. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • A military helicopter files over the presidential palace as opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi protest in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. The deadline on the military's ultimatum to President Mohammed Morsi has expired, with 48 hours passing since the time it was issued. Giant cheering crowds of Morsi's opponents have been gathered in Cairo's Tahrir Square and other locations nationwide, waving flags furiously in expection that the military will act to remove the Islamist president after the deadline ends. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi shout slogans during a protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. Egypt's military moved to tighten its control on key institutions Wednesday, even putting officers in the newsroom of state TV, in preparation for an almost certain push to remove the country's Islamist president when an afternoon ultimatum expires.(AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Blood stains the ground after opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi slaughter lambs as symbols of Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood leaders during a protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. Egypt's military held an emergency meeting Wednesday hours ahead of its deadline for the country's embattled Islamist president to yield to the demands of millions of protesters or face intervention by the army, a defense official said. Arabic reads, "June 30, the end of Brotherhood." (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi protest as they shout slogans and wave national flags in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. Arabic reads, "leave, we are back to the square." With a military deadline for intervention ticking down, hundreds of thousands of protesters seeking the ouster of Egypt's Islamist president sought Tuesday to push the embattled leader further toward the edge with another massive show of resolve and unity. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Fireworks burst over opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. With a military deadline for intervention ticking down, protesters seeking the ouster of Egypt's Islamist president sought Tuesday to push the embattled leader further toward the edge with another massive display of people power. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • A military helicopter flies over an opponent of Egyptian Islamist President Mohammed Morsi as he waves a national flag, in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. With a military deadline for intervention ticking down, protesters seeking the ouster of Egypt's Islamist president sought Tuesday to push the embattled leader further toward the edge with another massive display of people power. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • An Egyptian protester waves a national flag in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Egypt's powerful military warned on Monday it will intervene if the Islamist president doesn't "meet the people's demands," giving him and his opponents two days to reach an agreement in what it called a last chance. Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day calling on Mohammed Morsi to step down. (AP Photo/ Manu Brabo)

  • An Egyptian protester waves a flag in Tahrir square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Egypt's powerful military warned on Monday it will intervene if the Islamist president doesn't "meet the people's demands," giving him and his opponents two days to reach an agreement in what it called a last chance. Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day calling on Mohammed Morsi to step down. (AP Photo/Manu Brabo)

  • A Egyptian protester waves a national flag in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Egypt's powerful military warned on Monday it will intervene if the Islamist president doesn't "meet the people's demands," giving him and his opponents two days to reach an agreement in what it called a last chance. Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day calling on Mohammed Morsi to step down.(AP Photo/ Manu Brabo)

  • Fire works are seen over hundreds of thousands of Egyptians gathering in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo Sunday, June 30, 2013. Hundreds of thousands of opponents of Egypt's Islamist president poured out onto the streets in Cairo and across much of the nation Sunday, launching an all-out push to force Mohammed Morsi from office on the one-year anniversary of his inauguration. Fears of violence were high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Egyptian anti-President Mohammed Morsi protesters sit on lamp poles as one holds a national flag in Tahrir Square, the focal point of Egyptian uprising, in Cairo Sunday, June 30, 2013. Cairo Tower is seen in the background. Hundreds of thousands of opponents of Egypt's Islamist president poured out onto the streets in Cairo and across much of the nation Sunday, launching an all-out push to force Mohammed Morsi from office on the one-year anniversary of his inauguration. Fears of violence were high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him. (AP Photo/ Amr Nabil)

  • Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians gather in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Sunday, June 30, 2013. Hundreds of thousands of opponents of Egypt's Islamist president poured out onto the streets in Cairo and across much of the nation Sunday, launching an all-out push to force Mohammed Morsi from office on the one-year anniversary of his inauguration. Fears of violence were high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him. (AP Photo/ Manu Brabo)

  • Egyptian protesters calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi gather in Cairo's landmark Tahrir Square on July 2, 2013 as laser lights (L) directed at the government building spell 'Game Over.' (KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Thousands of Egyptian protesters celebrate in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi passes on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over the state television. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Egyptian opposition protesters celebrate as news is announced of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi proposing a consensus government as a way out of the country's political crisis, at Egypt's Presidential Palace on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. As the Egyptian Army's deadline passed on Wednesday afternoon, President Morsi proposed a consensus government as a way out of the country's political deadlock between the military and Muslim Brotherhood. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over state television. (Photo by Ed Giles/Getty Images)

  • Egyptian opposition protesters celebrate as news is announced of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi proposing a consensus government as a way out of the country's political crisis, at Egypt's Presidential Palace on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. As the Egyptian Army's deadline passed on Wednesday afternoon, President Morsi proposed a consensus government as a way out of the country's political deadlock between the military and Muslim Brotherhood. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over state television. (Photo by Ed Giles/Getty Images)

  • Thousands of Egyptian protesters celebrate in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi passes on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over the state television. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian man welcomes an army soldier upon his deployment on a street leading to Cairo University on July 3, 2013. A top aide to Egypt's President Mohamed Morsi slammed what he called a 'military coup' as an army ultimatum passed and the security forces slapped a travel ban on the Islamist leader. (KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An opponent of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi shouts slogans during a protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. A Defense Ministry official said army chief Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi is meeting with his top commanders, hours before the military's deadline to the president and opposition to resolve the nation's political crisis is set to expire. Arabic read " leave." (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi slaughter lambs as symbols of Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood leaders during a protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi hold Arabic signs reading "leave," as fire rages at the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Alexandria, Friday, June 28, 2013. (AP Photo/Heba Khamis)

  • An opponent of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chants slogans during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. The deadline on the military's ultimatum to President Mohammed Morsi has expired, with 48 hours passing since the time it was issued. Giant cheering crowds of Morsi's opponents have been gathered in Cairo's Tahrir Square and other locations nationwide, waving flags furiously in expection that the military will act to remove the Islamist president after the deadline ends. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

  • An opponent of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chants slogans during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, July 3, 2013. The deadline on the military's ultimatum to President Mohammed Morsi has expired, with 48 hours passing since the time it was issued. Giant cheering crowds of Morsi's opponents have been gathered in Cairo's Tahrir Square and other locations nationwide, waving flags furiously in expection that the military will act to remove the Islamist president after the deadline ends. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

  • Egyptian protesters calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi react as they watch his speech on a screen in a street leading to presidential palace early in Cairo on July 3, 2013. Morsi told Egyptians that he had been freely elected little more than a year ago and that he intended to continue to carry out his duties despite mass protests demanding his resignation. (MAHMUD KHALED/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Hundreds of Egyptian protesters begin to gather in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi approaches on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Holding a picture of the second President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, hundreds of Egyptian protesters begin to gather in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi approaches on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Thousands of Egyptian protesters begin to gather in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi approaches on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over state television. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Thousands of Egyptian protesters begin to gather in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi approaches on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over state television. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Thousands of Egyptian protesters begin to gather in Tahrir Square as the deadline given by the military to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi approaches on July 3, 2013 in Cairo, Egypt. The president gave a defiant speech last night and vowed to stay in power despite the military threats. As unrest spreads throughout the country, at least 23 people were killed in Cairo on Tuesday and over 200 others were injured. It has been reported that the military has taken over state television. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

  • Opposition protesters shout slogans as they gather in thousands at qoubba Presidential Palace to protest against Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood on July 2, 2013 in Cairo. Egypt's political crisis deepened as Islamist President Mohamed Morsi snubbed an army ultimatum threatening to intervene if he did not meet the demands of the people, and five ministers led a spate of government resignations. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Egyptian supporters of President Mohamed Morsi gather in Rabaa el-Aadawia district of cairo on July 2, 2013, as opponents of Egypt's president also poured onto the streets of Cairo to press their demand that he step down after the Islamist president snubbed an ultimatum from the army to agree to the 'people's demands' or face an imposed solution. (KHALED KAMEL/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Egyptian opposition protester shout slogans as tens of thousands gather outside the Presidential Palace calling for the ouster of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi on July 2, 2013 in Cairo. Opponents of Egypt's Mohamed Morsi poured onto the streets of Cairo to press their demand that he step down after the Islamist president snubbed an ultimatum from the army to agree to the 'people's demands' or face an imposed solution. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Egyptian protesters calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi gather in Cairo's landmark Tahrir Square on July 2, 2013. Opponents of Egypt's Mohamed Morsi poured onto the streets of Cairo to press their demand that he step down after the Islamist president snubbed an ultimatum from the army to agree to the 'people's demands' or face an imposed solution. (KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian opposition protester holds up the head of a sheep as tens of thousands gather outside the Presidential Palace calling for the ouster of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi on July 2, 2013 in Cairo. Opponents of Egypt's Mohamed Morsi poured onto the streets of Cairo to press their demand that he step down after the Islamist president snubbed an ultimatum from the army to agree to the 'people's demands' or face an imposed solution. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian youth with his face painted in the colours of the national flag look over as opponents of Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi protest calling for his ouster at Cairo's landmark Tahrir Square, on July 2, 2013. Egypt's political crisis deepened as Islamist President Mohamed Morsi snubbed an army ultimatum threatening to intervene if he did not meet the demands of the people, and five ministers led a spate of government resignations. (KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian opposition demonstrator sits at the top of a column watching a military helicopter fly by, as protesters (unseen) call for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi outside the presidential palace in Cairo, on July 2, 2013. Egypt's political crisis deepened as Islamist President Morsi snubbed an army ultimatum threatening to intervene if he did not meet the demands of the people, and five ministers led a spate of government resignations. (MAHMUD KHALED/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian boy waves a national flag during a protest against Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. With a military deadline for intervention ticking down, protesters seeking the ouster of Egypt's Islamist president sought Tuesday to push the embattled leader further toward the edge with another massive display of people power. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponent of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi hold a large Egyptian national flag during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. Egypt was on edge Tuesday following a "last-chance" ultimatum the military issued to Mohammed Morsi, giving the president and the opposition 48 hours to resolve the crisis in the country or have the army step in with its own plan. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)

  • Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi wave national flags during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, July 2, 2013. Egypt was on edge Tuesday following a "last-chance" ultimatum the military issued to Mohammed Morsi, giving the president and the opposition 48 hours to resolve the crisis in the country or have the army step in with its own plan. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

  • An Egyptian protester waves a national flag on a roof in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Egypt's powerful military warned on Monday it will intervene if the Islamist president doesn't "meet the people's demands," giving him and his opponents two days to reach an agreement in what it called a last chance. Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day calling on Mohammed Morsi to step down. (AP Photo/ Manu Brabo)

  • An Egyptian protester waves a national flag in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Egypt's powerful military warned on Monday it will intervene if the Islamist president doesn't "meet the people's demands," giving him and his opponents two days to reach an agreement in what it called a last chance. Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day calling on Mohammed Morsi to step down. (AP Photo/ Manu Brabo)

  • An Egyptian opposition demonstrator, runs down the length of a long national flag being held by protesters calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi, outside the presidential palace in Cairo, on July 2, 2013. (MAHMUD KHALED/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian protester shouts slogans during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo Monday, July 1, 2013. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

  • Opponents of Islamist President Mohammed Morsi waves Egyptian national flags during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday, July 1, 2013, after Egypt's military issued an ultimatum. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

  • An opponent of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi holds a banner with Arabic that reads, "leave," during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday, July 1, 2013. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)

  • A dog wearing a sign around his neck with Arabic that reads, "leave," accompanies its handler to a protest against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday, July 1, 2013. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)

 
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