Estelle Metayer

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On fait confiance aux femmes en politique, alors pourquoi pas dans le monde des affaires ?

Publication: 28/01/2013 12:06

La nouvelle est tombée cette fin de semaine: cinq des dix provinces du Canada ont maintenant à leur tête une femme. Un fait historique, et tous applaudissent cette diversité.

Cette nouvelle devrait pourtant nous amener à porter le débat sur une base plus large, et en particulier sur la question de la diversité dans le monde des affaires. Les Canadiens devraient notamment se poser la question de la bonne gouvernance de leurs entreprises. Alors que la population canadienne décide de faire confiance à des femmes pour gérer la moitié de leurs provinces, pourquoi celles-ci sont-elles si peu représentées dans les conseils d'administration ?

En effet, avec seulement 12,9% de femmes représentées dans les conseils d'administration des compagnies canadiennes cotées à la Bourse de Toronto, selon une étude de Deloitte de 2011 (ou 14,5% si l'on considère le Financial Post 500) , le Canada est très loin derrière les États-Unis ( avec 15,7% de femmes dans les conseils d'administration des entreprises du Fortune 500) , ou encore la France ( 20,8% au CAC 40), sans parler des pays nordiques comme la Norvège avec plus de 35%.

En 2011, 40% des entreprises du Financial Post 500 n'avaient encore aucune femme siégeant au conseil d'administration, selon la firme Catalyst. En ce début de 2013, Dollarama en est l'exemple le plus flagrant (entreprise dans laquelle les femmes forment la majorité de leur clientèle), ou encore McCain Foods et Hatch.

Dans ce paysage désertique, seules les sociétés d'État sortent la tête haute, ayant le plus fort pourcentage de représentation. Le Québec est aussi bien positionné relativement aux autres provinces, avec en 2011 17.2%, bien loin devant l'Alberta avec 10%.

La diversité, qu'elle se juge en terme du ratio hommes/femmes, de la représentation géographique, de l'origine ethnique ou encore de l'âge des administrateurs, est essentielle pour la bonne gouvernance des entreprises. Elle permet d'éviter que celles-ci ne soient victimes des habitudes ancrées comme elle permet d'éviter les angles morts.

En ce qui concerne les femmes en particulier, elle permet surtout d'élargir le pool de candidates. En effet, comme peu de femmes occupent aujourd'hui des postes de CEO - ou anciennement dans ces postes -, la diversité permet aux entreprises d'aller chercher des executives seniors, dotées expertises fonctionnelles très précises. Les conseils d'administration vont ainsi pouvoir aller chercher des complémentarités essentielles, telles que les connaissances en médias sociaux, technologie, finance, connaissance des opérations.

Malheureusement au Canada, il n'y a aujourd'hui que peu de coordination sur ce débat. Certes, quelques voix s'élèvent, et il existe quelques initiatives : l'association Women in Finance publie un annuaire, l'organisation Women on Board propose un programme de mentoring, et le Conseil canadien pour la diversité administrative propose une liste de 50 candidates . Mais c'est trop peu pour véritablement lancer le débat.

Pourtant, ailleurs, des initiatives démarrent : en Europe, l'année dernière, les universités et les écoles de commerce ont sélectionné dans le vivier de leurs anciennes diplômées les candidates les plus prometteuses et elles ont publié un annuaire. Le Financial Times a ouvert le mois dernier un annuaire en ligne sur Linkedin permettant aux recruteurs d'identifier facilement des candidates prêtes et expérimentées. Aux États-Unis, des associations comme le Women Corporate Directors permettent aux entreprises d'identifier les candidates qualifiées, déjà actuellement en poste.

Au Canada, c'est le grand vide. Alors que l'école Rottman de l'Université de Toronto et l'Universtié McGill fournissent les professeurs qui enseignent dans l'excellent programme de formation des administrateurs au niveau national (avec l'Institute of Corporate Directors), aucune des deux institutions ne semble montrer un appétit pour lancer le débat. L'association Women Corporate Directors, qui explose dans le monde, n'a qu'un chapitre à Toronto, mais aucune présence au Québec, en Alberta ou encore à Vancouver.

Alors, comment faire avancer le débat ? Voici quelques suggestions d'initiatives:

  • Encourager les investisseurs institutionnels, tels Investissement Québec ou la Caisse des Dépôts, à exiger une plus grande diversité dans les conseils d'administration des entreprises qu'elles soutiennent
  • Proposer que les investisseurs, et les actionnaires individuels ou minoritaires, posent la question de la diversité du conseil d'administration lors des assemblées d'actionnaires
  • Publier un index chaque année des progrès des entreprises canadiennes, et la liste des entreprises, cotées ou non, qui sont en dessous de la moyenne nationale
  • Créer une plateforme pour les CEO et présidents de conseils d'administration pour partager leur expérience et donner des exemples de ce que la diversité a amené dans leur conseil d'administration.
  • Chercher une championne qui portera le débat sur la scène publique et politique. En Europe, c'est Viviane Redding qui porte le flambeau, en Italie, la députée Alessia Mosca.

Si les entreprises canadiennes ne se prennent pas en main, alors le Canada n'aura pas d'autre solution que de lancer le débat sur les quotas, souvent mal aimés. Ils sont un excellent catalyseur, mais risquent aussi de polariser la discussion.

Les 25 Canadiennes les plus influentes
(classement réalisé par nos collègues du HuffPost Canada)

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  • Kirstine Stewart

    <b>Who</b>: Kirstine Stewart <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Executive Vice-President, English Services, CBC <b>Notable quote</b>: "I don't think, as women, that we actually look for recognition, so it's incredibly motivating and gratifying to know there's a group of people who believe that what you're doing makes a difference." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Sylvia Chrominska

    <b>Who</b>: Sylvia Chrominska <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Group Head, Global Resources and Communications, Scotiabank <b>Notable quote</b>: On becoming the first female executive vice-president, "That move suddenly put me at the senior executive table, and with no other women in the bank who'd had that role, there was nowhere to go for advice." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Cathy Bennett

    <b>Who</b>: Cathy Bennett <b>City</b>: St. John's, Newfoundland <b>Profession</b>: CEO, Bennett Group of Companies <b>Notable quote</b>: "My inspiration comes from trying to set a place in Atlantic Canadian business history." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Pauline D'Amboise

    <b>Who</b>: Pauline D'Amboise <b>City</b>: Montreal, Quebec <b>Profession</b>: Secretary General and Vice-President of Cooperative Support, Desjardins Group <b>Notable quote</b>: "If you think you have the right idea, go for it — have the courage to suggest new ideas and bring solutions to solve problems." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Moya Greene

    <b>Who</b>: Moya Greene <b>City</b>: London, UK (originally from Newfoundland) <b>Profession</b>: CEO, Royal Mail Group <b>Notable quote</b>: "When you're young, you can miss lots of things, and if you have a guide, you wise up much more quickly." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Dr. Eve Tsai

    <b>Who</b>: Dr. Eve Tsai <b>City</b>: Ottawa, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Neurosurgeon, The Ottawa Hospital; Associate Scientist, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa <b>Notable quote</b>: "What I'd to be able to do at the end of my career is say that we've got a way to repair brains that are injured, and spinal cords that are injured." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Dr. Fiona Costello

    <b>Who</b>: Dr. Fiona Costello <b>City</b>: Calgary, Alberta <b>Profession</b>: Associate Professor, Departments of Clinical Sciences and Surgery; Clinician Scientist, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary <b>Notable quote</b>: "Everything I do is with the hope that I can positively impact the lives of patients with vision loss in Canada." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Janet Davidson

    <b>Who</b>: Janet Davidson <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Canadian Executive of The Global Healthcare Practice, KPMG LLP <b>Notable quote</b>: "The healthcare system really isn't a healthcare system, it's a sickness system ... How do we make sure people stay healthy so they don't actually have to use the system?" <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Camille Orridge

    <b>Who</b>: Camille Orridge <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: CEO, Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network <b>Notable quote</b>: While working as a "ward maid" in the 1960s, Orridge says, "I would see things and how they were organized and think 'I can do better than that.'" <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Christine Power

    <b>Who</b>: Christine Power <b>City</b>: Halifax, Nova Scotia <b>Profession</b>: President and CEO, Capital District Health Authority <b>Notable quote</b>: "We ask [police, schools and business community leaders] what's [their] role in health, how can we use [that role] to promote well-being in the community?" <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Rosemary McCarney

    <b>Who</b>: Rosemary McCarney <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: President and CEO, Plan Canada <b>Notable quote</b>: "I recruited a really strong team of people around me who've been at the heart of everything we've managed to get done." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Bonnie Schmidt

    <b>Who</b>: Bonnie Schmidt <b>City</b>: London, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: President and founder, Let's Talk Science <b>Notable quote</b>: "How do you prepare for the jobs of the future when we don't even know what those jobs are going to look like?" <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Beverley Wybrow

    <b>Who</b>: Beverley Wybrow <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: President and CEO, Canadian Women's Foundation <b>Notable quote</b>: "I love the variety of my work, but my greatest achievements are what the CWF team has managed to accomplish, together." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Ilana Landsberg-Lewis

    <b>Who</b>: Ilana Landsberg-Lewis <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Executive Director, Stephen Lewis Foundation <b>Notable quote</b>: "Gender equality is the greatest work left to be achieved on this planet, and without it, nothing improves." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Andrea Carey

    <b>Who</b>: Andrea Carey <b>City</b>: Victoria, British Columbia <b>Profession</b>: Director of Operations and Community Engagement at the Pacific Institute For Sport Excellent <b>Notable quote</b>: "Physical literacy is the confidence and competence to take part in a variety of movement skills." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Anne M. Stewart

    <b>Who</b>: Anne M. Stewart <b>City</b>: Vancouver, British Columbia <b>Profession</b>: Partner, Blake Cassels & Graydon, LLP <b>Notable quote</b>: "I''ve been blessed. I had lots of opportunities growing up; I have a lovely career. I think it's important to give back to our communities." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Marlys Edwardh

    <b>Who</b>: Rosemary McCarney <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Partner, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell, LLP <b>Notable quote</b>: "Many people think lawyers only serve the articulated needs of the clients ... but equally we are there to see the structural flaws, the failures of the system and work towards change." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Jane Allen

    <b>Who</b>: Jane Allen <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Partner, Chief Diversity Officer, Global Renewable Energy Leader, Deloitte <b>Notable quote</b>: "Nine times out of 10, if you think the job is too big or too hard, it's not, and if you think you can't do it, you can." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Carol Hansell

    <b>Who</b>: Carol Hansell <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Senior Partner, Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg, LLP <b>Notable quote</b>: Her stated goal is to ensure a 'high quality shareholders' vote,' which means that shareholders are properly informed, among other priorities. <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Shannon Bowen-Smed

    <b>Who</b>: Shannon Bowen-Smed <b>City</b>: Calgary, Alberta <b>Profession</b>: President and CEO, Bowen Workforce Solutions <b>Notable quote</b>: Bowen-Smed describes her role in the company as "opening doors to opportunity." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Carol Stephenson

    <b>Who</b>: Carol Stephenson <b>City</b>: London, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Dean, Richard Ivey School of Business <b>Notable quote</b>: "When I decide to work on something, I really focus on it, get it done, and then move on to the next thing." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Cristina Amon

    <b>Who</b>: Cristina Amon <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Dean, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto <b>Notable quote</b>: She attributes her successful engineering career in part to interests. "I think I was always interested and astounded by how things work." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Kellie Garrett

    <b>Who</b>: Kellie Garrett <b>City</b>: Regina, Saskatchewan <b>Profession</b>: Senior Vice-President, Strategy, Knowledge & Reputation, Farm Credit Canada <b>Notable quote</b>: "I'm extroverted and like to talk out loud about ideas when I think they are good, but if I'm the main person talking then it's worth nothing." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Karen Stintz

    <b>Who</b>: Karen Stintz <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: Chair, TTC; City Councillor, City of Toronto <b>Notable quote</b>: "My ultimate vision, at the end of 2014, is to look back on my role and ask myself, did I leave the TTC and the community a little bit better than how I found it?" <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

  • Nancy Croitoru

    <b>Who</b>: Nancy Croitoru <b>City</b>: Toronto, Ontario <b>Profession</b>: President and CEO, Food and Consumer Products of Canada <b>Notable quote</b>: On helping consumers make better choices: "We heard loud and clear from consumers that what they trust the most is the information on packages, but they didn't know how to use it." <b><a href="http://www.myvirtualpaper.com/doc/women-of-influence/woi-magazine-winter-2012/2012110701#26">Read the rest of her profile in the online version of Women of Influence's Winter issue.</a></b>

 
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