TUNISIE - Après le meurtre d'un chef de l'opposition tunisienne, Chokri Belaïd, premier assassinat politique depuis la révolution de 2011, le Premier ministre Hamadi Jebali s'est adressé à la nation dans la soirée pour annoncer qu'il allait former un gouvernement de technocrates. "J'ai décidé de former un gouvernement de compétences nationales sans appartenance politique qui aura un mandat limité à la gestion des affaires du pays jusqu'à la tenue d'élections dans les plus brefs délais", a-t-il déclaré.

Et si cette annonce arrivait trop tard? C'est en tout cas ce que semblent penser bon nombre de Tunisiens sur Twitter. La crise politique dure depuis des mois. Le parti islamiste, Ennahda, peine à trouver son unité, quand la coalition au pouvoir, la Troïka, est, elle, bord de l'explosion.

En signe de protestation après l'assassinat de Belaïd, quatre formations de l'opposition laïque -le Front populaire, Al-Massar (gauche), le Parti républicain et Nidaa Tounes (centre)- ont appelé à une grève générale et suspendu leur participation à l'Assemblée nationale constituante. Le débrayage doit avoir lieu vendredi, jour des funérailles. Néanmoins, les syndicats des avocats, magistrats et du parquet ont annoncé qu'ils se mettaient en grève dès jeudi, tout comme les enseignants de la plus grande université du pays, à la Manouba, en banlieue de Tunis.

Ennahda montré du doigt

Les proches de la victime ont accusé le parti islamiste au pouvoir Ennahda d'être responsable du meurtre, laissant craindre un nouveau cycle de violences dans un pays déjà miné par une crise politique, sociale et économique et qui peine à se relever de la révolution qui a fait chuter Zine El Abidine Ben Ali en janvier 2011.

Dénonçant un "odieux assassinat", le président Moncef Marzouki, un laïc qui entretient des relations tendues avec Ennahda, a annulé un déplacement au Caire et est rentré d'urgence de France à Tunis. Il a convoqué une réunion des hauts dirigeants politiques et sécuritaires.

"Un acte de terroriste contre la Tunisie"

Chokri Belaïd, 48 ans, critique acerbe du gouvernement, a été tué en sortant de chez lui le matin de trois balles tirées à bout portant, selon le Premier ministre. "Mon mari a été menacé plusieurs fois et avait lancé des avertissements à maintes reprises, sans résultat. On lui répondait qu'il devait assumer le fait d'être un opposant", a déclaré Besma Khalfaoui, à l'hôpital, le pantalon taché de sang.

Elle ainsi que le frère de la victime, Abdelmajid Belaïd, ont accusé le chef d'Ennahda, Rached Ghannouchi. "Ghannouchi sale chien", a crié en larmes le père de l'opposant. Mais M. Ghannouchi a nié toute implication, estimant que ses auteurs "veulent un bain de sang" en Tunisie. "C'est un acte de terrorisme pas seulement contre Belaïd mais contre toute la Tunisie", a lancé M. Jebali.

Un policier mort dans les manifestations

Après de premiers heurts le matin entre policiers et manifestants, une foule a accompagné l'ambulance transportant le corps de l'opposant qui s'est arrêtée avenue Bourguiba, à Tunis, devant le ministère de l'Intérieur, symbole de répression pour les opposants. "Le peuple veut la chute du régime!" "Le peuple veut une révolution de nouveau", "Ennahda tortionnaire du peuple", ont scandé les manifestants, entonnant plusieurs fois l'hymne national.

Après le passage de l'ambulance, une foule de jeunes a de nouveau attaqué la police avec des pierres. Un blindé de la garde nationale a tiré des lacrymogènes alors que les manifestants ont érigé des barricades. Après plusieurs heures d'affrontements, le calme semblait être revenu en début de soirée dans le centre de Tunis. Le ministère de l'intérieur a annoncé la mort d'un policier mortellement touché par des jets de pierres.

Ailleurs dans le pays, la police a fait usage de lacrymogènes pour disperser des manifestants qui tentaient de prendre d'assaut son siège à Sidi Bouzid (centre-ouest), berceau de la révolte de 2011. A Mezzouna, Gafsa, Monastir (centre) et Sfax (sud) des protestataires ont incendié et saccagé les locaux d'Ennahda. A Kasserine, Béja et Bizerte, des foules criaient "Vengeance, vengeance".

La Tunisie plongée dans la violence

A l'étranger, le président français François Hollande a condamné ce meurtre qui "prive la Tunisie d'une de ses voix les plus courageuses". Les Etats-Unis ont dénoncé un "acte odieux et lâche". Berlin a exprimé sa "tristesse" et appelé les responsables tunisiens à "protéger l'héritage" de la révolution alors que Londres a dénoncé un "acte lâche et barbare destiné à déstabiliser la transition démocratique en Tunisie".

Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International et la Fédération internationale des droits de l'Homme (Fidh) ont condamné le meurtre et a appelé à une enquête indépendante. Secrétaire général du parti des Patriotes démocrates, l'opposant avait rejoint avec sa formation le Front populaire, une coalition de gauche qui se pose en alternative au pouvoir. Mais le poids politique de Chokri Belaïd et de ses alliés demeure une inconnue.

La Tunisie est plongée dans une crise politique faute d'un compromis sur la future Constitution qui bloque l'organisation de nouvelles élections, alors que les membres laïques de la coalition gouvernementale réclament un remaniement pour retirer aux islamistes des ministères régaliens.Les violences se sont multipliées et des milices pro-pouvoir ont été accusées d'orchestrer des attaques contre l'opposition, notamment le meurtre d'un opposant battu à mort en octobre par des manifestants.

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  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    People surround an ambulance transporting the body of Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid, from from a clinic in Tunis to the public hospital for an autopsy, after he was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013. Tunisian Premier Hamadi Jebali called the assassination 'an act of terrorism', as the country grapples with growing political instability. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Police look for clues next to the car in which Chokri Belaid was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. The Tunisian opposition leader critical of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims was shot to death Wednesday ó the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • The body of Chokri Belaid is loaded into an ambulance from the hospital toward the morgue after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb.6, 2013. The Tunisian opposition leader critical of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims was shot to death Wednesday — the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Moncef Marzouki, President of Tunisia, delivers a statement at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, eastern France, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. Marzouki, who is from a secular party in the governing coalition, was in Strasbourg addressing the European Parliament and said the assassination was a threat against all of Tunisia. Chokri Belaid, a Tunisian opposition leader critical of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims was shot to death Wednesday _ the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. (AP Photo/Christian Lutz)

  • The blood stained car belonging to Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • A man cries at the ambulance carrying the body of Chokri Belaid after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. The Tunisian opposition leader critical of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims was shot to death Wednesday — the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Tunisians demonstrate outside the home of Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • People throng the streets as an ambulance carries the body of Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid outside the hospital towards the morgue, after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was killed outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Besma Khlifi, wife of Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid, reacts after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Besma Khlifi, wife of Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid, reacts after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Besma Khlifi, left, wife of Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid, reacts after he was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • A man looks at the site where Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • Police officers secure the scene where Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid was shot to death in Tunis, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 2013. A critic of the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, Belaid was shot to death outside his home Wednesday, in the first political assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia. The killing is likely to heighten tensions in the North African nation whose path from dictatorship to democracy so far has been seen as a model for the Arab world. (AP Photo/Amine Landoulsi)

  • FILE - In this Dec.29, 2010 file photo, Tunisian lawyer Chokri Belaid attends a press conference at the lawyers' Bar in Tunis. A Tunisian opposition party says Wednesday, Feb.6, 2013 its leader, who had criticized the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, has been shot to death outside his home. The Unified Democratic Nationalist Party says Chokri Belaid was shot as he left his house in the capital Tunis on Wednesday. Witnesses say he was taken to a nearby clinic and died.(AP Photo/Hassene Dridi, File )

  • FILE - In this Dec.29, 2010 file photo, Tunisian lawyer Abdraouf Ayadi, left, shows injuries to his back he claims were caused by police officers, while Chokri Belaid looks on, during a press conference at the lawyers' Bar in Tunis. A Tunisian opposition party says Wednesday, Feb.6, 2013 its leader, who had criticized the Islamist-led government and violence by radical Muslims, has been shot to death outside his home. The Unified Democratic Nationalist Party says Chokri Belaid was shot as he left his house in the capital Tunis on Wednesday. Witnesses say he was taken to a nearby clinic and died.(AP Photo/Hassene Dridi, File )

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    People surround an ambulance transporting the body of Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid, from a clinic in Tunis to the public hospital for an autopsy, after he was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013. Tunisian Premier Hamadi Jebali called the assassination 'an act of terrorism', as the country grapples with growing political instability. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    A protester shows tear gas canisters fired by Tunisian police towards protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Basma Chokri (L), the wife of assassinated Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid, is seen wearing blood stained trousers as she is comforted by friends following her husband's death after he was shot dead with bullets fired from close range on February 6, 2013 at a clinic in Tunis. President Moncef Marzouki has cancelled his participation in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation summit in Cairo and is heading back to Tunisia after the murder of opposition leader Chokri Belaid, the presidency said. His assassination comes at a time when Tunisia is witnessing a rise in violence fed by political and social discontent two years after the mass uprising that toppled the former dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    The body of Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid, shot dead with three bullets fired from close range by a man wearing a traditional long garment with a pointed hood on February 6, 2013, is transported in an ambulance from from a clinic in Tunis to the public hospital for an autopsy. Tunisian Premier Hamadi Jebali called the assassination 'an act of terrorism', as the country grapples with growing political instability. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    A Tunisian protester jumps amid smoke after police fired tear gas during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    A policeman prepares to throw a stone during clashes with Tunisian protesters during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian protesters flash the sign of victory during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian protesters shout slogans during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    People protect themselves from tear gas smoke during clashes between Tunisian police and protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    An elderly woman is escorted away from tear gas smoke during clashes between Tunisian police and protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian protesters remove fences during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Women protect themselves from tear gas smoke during clashes between Tunisian police and protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    People protect themselves from tear gas smoke during clashes between Tunisian police and protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    An elderly woman is escorted away from tear gas smoke by a riot policeman during clashes between Tunisian police and protesters following a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian protesters shout slogans during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian people shout slogans during a rallye in front of Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013. President Moncef Marzouki denounced the killing of Belaid, an outspoken critic of his government, as an 'odious assassination', while Ennahda chief Rached Ghannouchi told AFP the killers wanted a 'bloodbath' in Tunisia. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian protesters shout slogans during a rallye outside the Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. The protesters, who massed on Habib Bourguiba Avenue, epicentre of the 2011 uprising that ousted ex-dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, pelted the police with bottles and the police responded by firing tear gas, chasing the protesters and beating them with batons. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian people shout slogans during a rallye in front of Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. President Moncef Marzouki denounced the killing of Belaid, an outspoken critic of his government, as an 'odious assassination', while Ennahda chief Rached Ghannouchi told AFP the killers wanted a 'bloodbath' in Tunisia. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)

  • TUNISIA-POLITICS-UNREST-OPPOSITION

    Tunisian people remove fences and barbed wire during a rallye in front of Interior ministry to protest after Tunisian opposition leader and outspoken government critic Chokri Belaid was shot dead with three bullets fired from close range, on February 6, 2013 in Tunis. President Moncef Marzouki denounced the killing of Belaid, an outspoken critic of his government, as an 'odious assassination', while Ennahda chief Rached Ghannouchi told AFP the killers wanted a 'bloodbath' in Tunisia. AFP PHOTO / FETHI BELAID (Photo credit should read FETHI BELAID/AFP/Getty Images)