LE CAIRE, Égypte - L'armée égyptienne a commencé, lundi, à appuyer la police pour assurer la sécurité et protéger les institutions du pays jusqu'à l'annonce des résultats du référendum du 15 décembre sur le projet de Constitution, conformément au décret annoncé dimanche par le président Mohamed Morsi.

Le décret présidentiel ordonne à l'armée et à la police de maintenir ensemble la sécurité durant la préparation du référendum de samedi sur le projet de Constitution très contesté, approuvé à la hâte le mois dernier par une commission dominée par les alliés islamistes de M. Morsi, malgré le boycottage des membres progressistes, laïques et chrétiens de la commission.

Lundi, rien ne laissait croire à une présence militaire renforcée autour du palais présidentiel, où se sont déroulés de violents affrontements la semaine dernière, ni ailleurs dans la capitale.

Le décret accorde aussi à l'armée le droit d'arrêter des civils, mais le porte-parole de la présidence, Yasser Ali, a assuré à l'Associated Press qu'il ne s'agissait pas de l'imposition de la loi martiale.

La décision du président Morsi de s'appuyer sur les militaires pour maintenir la sécurité d'ici au vote est largement perçue comme une preuve de la nervosité du gouvernement face au référendum sur le projet de Constitution, qui est au coeur des manifestations et des affrontements de la semaine dernière au Caire. Les violences entre militants de l'opposition et partisans des Frères musulmans ont fait six morts et des centaines de blessés près du palais présidentiel.

Dans une apparente tentative d'apaiser les tensions, le président Morsi a annoncé samedi qu'il abrogeait les décrets présidentiels du 22 novembre lui accordant des pouvoirs quasi absolus et le plaçant au-dessus de toute supervision, notamment des tribunaux. Mais il a insisté sur le fait que le référendum aurait lieu comme prévu le 15 décembre.

L'opposition, de même que les partisans du président, ont appelé à de grandes manifestations rivales mardi pour dénoncer ou appuyer le projet de Constitution. L'opposition rejette le référendum, mais doit encore décider si elle appellera au boycottage du vote ou si elle militera pour le «Non».

«La décision de boycotter le référendum ou de faire campagne pour le "Non" fait encore l'objet de discussions», a déclaré Hossam Moanis, porte-parole du Front du salut national, qui rassemble plusieurs partis et groupes de l'opposition. «Pour l'instant, nous rejetons le référendum dans le cadre de notre rejet du projet de Constitution.»

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  • Egyptian protesters chant slogans at rally in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012. Egyptians flocked to Cairo's central Tahrir square on Tuesday for a protest against Egypt's president in a significant test of whether the opposition can rally the street behind it in a confrontation aimed at forcing the Islamist leader to rescind decrees that granted him near absolute powers. (AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra)

  • Egyptian protesters attend an opposition rally in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012. Thousands flocked to Cairo's central Tahrir square on Tuesday for a protest against Egypt's president in a significant test of whether the opposition can rally the street behind it in a confrontation aimed at forcing the Islamist leader to rescind decrees that granted him near absolute powers.(AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

  • A masked Egyptian protester takes cover during clashes with security forces near Tahrir square, where an opposition rally has been called for to voice rejection of President Morsi's seizure of near absolute powers, in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012. Egyptian protesters and police clashed in Cairo on Tuesday just hours ahead of a planned massive rally by opponents of the country's Islamist president demanding he rescind decrees that granted him near-absolute powers.(AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra)

  • Tens of thousands people take part in a mass rally against a decree by President Mohamed Morsi granting himself broad powers on November 27, 2012 at Egypt's landmark Tahir Square in Cairo. Clashes between police and protesting youths erupted near Cairo's Tahrir Square, ahead of the demonstration. The planned demonstrations come a day after Morsi stuck by his controversial decree in a meeting with judges that was aimed at defusing the worst political crisis since his election in June. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian protester attempts to throw back a tear gas canister on November 27, 2012 during clashes with the Egyptian Riot Police in Omar Makram street, off Tahrir Square in Cairo. Clashes between police and protesting youths erupted on Tuesday near Cairo's Tahrir Square, ahead of a mass rally against a decree by President Mohamed Morsi granting himself broad powers. The planned demonstrations come a day after Morsi stuck by his controversial decree in a meeting with judges that was aimed at defusing the worst political crisis since his election in June. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian protester blows a stadium horn as he gestures at a cordon of security forces near Tahrir square, where an opposition rally has been called for to voice rejection of President Morsi's seizure of near absolute powers, in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012. Egyptian protesters and police clashed in Cairo on Tuesday just hours ahead of a planned massive rally by opponents of the country’s Islamist president demanding he rescinds decrees that granted him near-absolute powers. (AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra)

  • Egyptian security forces arrest a protester during clashes near Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012. Egyptian protesters and police clashed in Cairo on Tuesday just hours ahead of a planned massive rally by opponents of the country’s Islamist president demanding he rescinds decrees that granted him near-absolute powers.(AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra)

  • An Egyptian protester hurls a stone during clashes with security forces, unseen, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Nov. 21, 2012. Egyptian protesters firebombed one of the offices of satellite broadcaster Al-Jazeera on Wednesday and attacked a police chief who tried to negotiate an end to three days of violent protests in central Cairo.(AP Photo/Ahmed Gomaa)

  • An Egyptian protester drags a security barrier during clashes outside the country's high court in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Nov. 24, 2012. Egypt’s highest body of judges slammed on Saturday a recent decision by the president to grant himself near-absolute power, calling the move an “unprecedented assault” on the judiciary. The statement from the Supreme Judicial Council came as hundreds of demonstrators clashed with police outside a downtown Cairo courthouse. They were protesting the Thursday declaration by President Mohammed Morsi that courts could not overrule his decrees until a new constitution and parliament is in place, several months if not more in the future. (AP Photo/Mohammed Asad)

  • Egyptian protesters gather outside the country's high court in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Nov. 24, 2012. Egypt’s highest body of judges slammed on Saturday a recent decision by the president to grant himself near-absolute power, calling the move an “unprecedented assault” on the judiciary. The statement from the Supreme Judicial Council came as hundreds of demonstrators clashed with police outside a downtown Cairo courthouse. They were protesting the Thursday declaration by President Mohammed Morsi that courts could not overrule his decrees until a new constitution and parliament is in place, several months if not more in the future. (AP Photo/Mohammed Asad)

  • Egyptian protesters gather in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Nov. 25, 2012. President Mohammed Morsi edicts, which were announced on Thursday, place him above oversight of any kind, including that of the courts. The move has thrown Egypt's already troubled transition to democracy into further turmoil, sparking angry protests across the country to demand the decrees be immediately rescinded. The banner in Arabic, top center, reads, "members of the Muslim Brotherhood are not allowed." (AP Photo/Ahmed Gomaa)

  • An Egyptian protester shouts political slogans against President Mohamed Morsi's decree granting himself broad powers as others wave their national flag during a demonstration in Cairo's Tahrir Square on November 27, 2012. The planned demonstrations come a day after Morsi met with the country's top judges in a bid to defuse the crisis over the decree, that has sparked deadly clashes and prompted judges and journalists to call for strike. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • An Egyptian protester recovers from tear gas inhalation on November 27, 2012, during clashes with the Egyptian Riot Police in Omar Makram street, off Tahrir Square in Cairo. Clashes between police and protesting youths erupted near Cairo's Tahrir Square, ahead of a mass rally against a decree by President Mohamed Morsi granting himself broad powers. The planned demonstrations come a day after Morsi stuck by his controversial decree in a meeting with judges that was aimed at defusing the worst political crisis since his election in June. (GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A group of protesters shout slogans against Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi during a demonstration in front of the White House in Washington on November 26, 2012. Morsi stuck by a controversial decree granting him sweeping powers, on the eve of planned nationwide rallies to protest the move, in the worst crisis since his election in June. (JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images)

  • A group of protesters shout slogans against Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi during a demonstration in front of the White House in Washington on November 26, 2012. Morsi stuck by a controversial decree granting him sweeping powers, on the eve of planned nationwide rallies to protest the move, in the worst crisis since his election in June. (JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images)